Mary, Henry and Catherine's only living child, was born in 1516. Female offspring, on the other hand, were not thought to be safe bets for dynasties. Henry wanted a male heir, which fueled his efforts to divorce Catherine of Aragon, who was in her forties. She had two previous husbands who both died without leaving sons behind them.
Catherine was an infertile woman. Her first husband, Arthur, was only nine years older than she was. He died when he was 34. Her second husband, Prince Ferdinand, was 12 years old when they married. He died when he was 36. After these two marriages failed, no one would marry Catherine despite being pregnant several times herself.
She finally got around this problem by marrying Arthur's brother, King Henry VII, when she was 40. But even so, their son Prince Henry did not live beyond 1 year old.
So, yes, three of Catherine's children survived childhood. Mary lived until age 29. Henry, who would become King Henry VIII, lived until age 45. And Catherine, who would later marry King Francis I of France, lived until age 46.
However, their daughter Elizabeth never reached maturity. She died in infancy due to a disease called "sweating sickness".
This is how many children of Catherine of Aragon survived to adulthood: 3 out of 6.
Catherine was the youngest daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, the Spanish kings. She married Prince Arthur, the eldest son of King Henry VII of England, in 1501. Arthur died the next year, and she was soon betrothed to Prince Henry, Henry VII's second son. But when Henry VIII became king in 1509, he broke off the engagement with Catherine's father and replaced her with his own son by saying that a marriage between their families would never have been lawful because Catherine was a Catholic while Henry was a Protestant.
They did marry in a private ceremony in which only friends and family were present. But this did not stop Pope Julius II from declaring the union unlawful and demanding that Ferdinand release him from his promise to provide an heir for Arthur so that it could be properly annulled. When Ferdinand refused, war was declared by Spain against England, France, and the Holy Roman Empire. This war continued for eight years, during which time neither king dared to invade the other's country.
Ferdinand and Catherine had three children: John, Charles, and Anne. In 1516, the marriage between Catherine and Henry VIII was officially declared valid, and the two countries formed an alliance against Spain. However, when Ferdinand announced that he would not try to force Catherine to follow Catholicism, but instead wanted her to rule as queen of England, Wales, and Ireland, Henry VIII broke off the alliance.
In 1515, Henry linked England once more with Spain and Ferdinand. Catherine gave birth to a healthy daughter the next February, on the 18th, whom they called Mary, who would eventually govern England as Mary I. Ferdinand, Catherine's father, died on January 23, but the news was hidden from her in order to preserve her pregnancy. She gave birth to a son who also died soon after his birth.
They had no idea that this would one day be interpreted as divine punishment for their marriage. But at the time it was just thought of as bad luck - like having a black cat cross your path or an unlucky number of candles on a birthday cake.
In fact, both babies were stillborn, which means they didn't survive beyond the first few weeks or months of life. This happened to be two consecutive years with no monarchs born to the English and Spanish kings, so people began to wonder if it was supposed to be this way for them.
At first, everyone believed the babies were alive, but then they discovered the twins weren't doing very well and there wasn't much hope for them. So the doctors took the decision to kill them both by cutting off their heads while they were still inside the womb. This way they could avoid any further suffering and death.