Greek city-states were controlled by a variety of institutions, including monarchs, oligarchies, tyrants, and, in Athens' instance, democracy. However, none of these officials could be described as "rulers" in the modern sense of the word.
In ancient Greece, leaders were called kings or lords (or both), depending on their position within the political system. There were two main types of leadership positions in ancient Greece: generals and politicians. Generals were high-ranking officers who led military campaigns and exercises. They could be elected by their soldiers or chosen by the king. Political leaders were involved in government administration; they could be elected officials who represented groups in the community or be appointed officials. Appointing officials was common among the Greek city-states. Sometimes leaders were referred to as "masters" or "commanders," but never as "rulers."
In conclusion, yes, Greek city-states had rulers. But they were not called "rulers" in the modern sense of the word.
There were two primary types of governance in Ancient Greece: oligarchy and democracy. Sparta (oligarchy) and Athens (democracy) were the two city-states that best represented each kind of governance (democracy). Athens was more concerned with culture, whilst Sparta was more concerned with battle. However, both cities enjoyed great prosperity during their time.
Athens used a system of government called "epitaphios demokratikos" which means "the sacred democratic". This is because those who held power were expected to conduct themselves honorably and not misuse their position. They also had to obey laws and be responsible for their actions. In exchange, those who worked hard and acted responsibly would be given access to education and opportunities otherwise reserved for only the rich. This type of government was most likely inspired by the belief that the city was designed by Zeus and therefore could only exist if it was run by its citizens.
Spartan government was based on military might and obedience to authority. They believed that leadership should be taken away from the people and given to someone who was either very brave or had money enough to buy protection from others who were brave. This form of government was probably inspired by the belief that society was made up of three classes: kings, priests and peasants and that it was necessary to have a ruling class to keep the other two classes in line.
The administrations of the city-state of Athens and the Roman Republic had one thing in common: they were both democracies. But it was Cleisthenes who gave Athenian males the right to vote in elections to pick their rulers. Before his time, only free men could vote; those who weren't free had no say in government.
Athens and Rome were not the only countries with democratic governments. In fact, no other country has ever been exactly like either Athens or Rome. But many others were also oligarchic (rule by the few) or anarchic (no rule at all). Over time, however, most countries have moved toward greater democracy. Today, almost every country in the world is a democracy.
In conclusion, the governments of Athens and Rome had something in common: they were both democracies.
The two most powerful city-states were Athens and Sparta. Both Athens and Sparta were significant in the development of Greek society and culture, despite the fact that Athens was a democracy while Sparta had two kings and an oligarchic government.
Athens is best known for being the birthplace of democracy. In 514 B.C., Athens defeated the kingdom of Persia to become the first state in Europe (and the only one until Rome) to establish democratic government.
Sparta on the other hand, dominated ancient Greece as a military power for almost half a century after its founding in 734 B.y. By 431 B.c., however, Athens had enough military strength to defeat Sparta in what came to be known as the Peloponnesian War. In 404 B.c., Sparta surrendered its empire to Athens, which then became the dominant force in the Greek world.
Attica was the name of the area within the borders of Athens that housed her assembly and courts. It was here that many of the achievements of Ancient Athenian civilization were founded. The city itself was built on seven hills but mostly consisted of plainland with wooded areas. She also had a large port, Piraeus, where ships could dock. Athens was surrounded by a wall with eighty-three gates through which soldiers could patrol the grounds looking for enemies.
Democracies were regimes that gave citizens the right to vote on and participate in official decisions. Athens, Sparta, Thebes, Corinth, and Delphi were among the most significant city-states. Both were military dictatorships where the leader could decide what role they wanted to play (he could be an executive or a king). Athens was a parliamentary republic where the people voted on who would make the laws. In exchange for their allegiance, the rulers of both cities provided their soldiers to be used in wars together.
Athens' economy was based on agriculture and commerce; it was one of the world's oldest democracies. Sparta's economy was based on warfare; it was one of the only city-states to have kings. Both cities were considered great powers in their time. In 431 BC, Athens and Sparta made a deal where each country would trade with the other if they went to war with another nation. This agreement is known as the "Delian League". Between 427 and 404 BC, members of these two countries fought several battles against each other with the aim of determining which city-state was the greatest. At the end of this period of competition, both Athens and Sparta had become great powers and they continued to work together in peace until 405 BC when Athens ended the alliance.
Corinth was a maritime power that traded with Egypt, Sicily, and Italy.