Archaeology reveals a persistent Asiatic presence at Avaris for more than 150 years before the start of Hyksos dominance, with progressive Canaanite colonization commencing there around 1800 BC under the Twelfth Dynasty. This dynasty was already predominantly of West Asian descent based on their names. A few individuals with possible Eastern European origins have also been found there.
The Hyksos were an ancient people who dominated much of Egypt during the 17th and 16th centuries BC. They are known for their invasion of Egypt and their introduction of many foreign customs including the use of horses and chariots. However, some recent studies have suggested that they may not be as indigenous to Egypt as once thought. Some believe that they may have invaded from Asia because of certain similarities between some of their tools and those used in other ancient Asiatic civilizations such as that of Sumer. Others note that none of their remains have been found outside of Egypt which seems to rule out any foreign invasion force.
Instead, some suggest that they may have originally been Egyptians who were forced into exile by the ruling class. They would have needed an army to invade Egypt since there were no tanks or planes back then. And since horses and chariots were important parts of their army, it is likely that they came from somewhere near the eastern edge of the Middle East where these kinds of weapons were developed further.
The advent of the Hyksos marked the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty and the beginning of Egypt's Second Intermediate Period. The word "Asian" in the context of Ancient Egypt refers to individuals from locations east of Egypt. Although the country was ruled by various foreign kings, such as those from Nubia, they all came from countries that are now in Asia.
The Hyksos were a semi-legendary tribe that supposedly invaded and settled in present-day Israel and parts of Lebanon in the 16th century BC. Their name comes from a word meaning "shepherd" or "man", probably referring to the leaders of the invasion.
According to the traditional account, the Hyksos took over most of Egypt after killing or driving out the previous rulers. They established themselves primarily in the Nile Delta but also controlled part of Upper Egypt for several years. However, modern scholars believe this story to be a myth created by the Egyptians themselves to explain how they were ousted from their own country. Some historians have suggested that the invaders may have been Libyans or Nubians instead.
After being in power for approximately 70 years, the Hyksos were destroyed during a rebellion led by an Egyptian prince named Ahmose (or Amosis). According to the traditional account, he drove them out of Egypt with the help of soldiers from Thebes.
The Hyksos rapidly conquered Lower Egypt with their better bronze weaponry and strong composite bows. The Hyksos founded their capital in Avaris, on the Nile delta's east bank. The Hyksos governed Lower Egypt for roughly a hundred years, but they were unable to maintain control of Upper Egypt. The Egyptian people there continued to speak Egyptian even after the invasion, which shows that the Hyksos did not conquer all of Egypt.
The city is now a small village called Qena. It has some ruins of ancient buildings but most of them are from later periods after the Greek conquest in 332 B.C. So most likely the original city site was much larger than what remains today.
Did you know? The word "hyakinthos" means "flute" in Greek. This is why there are so many artifacts found around the world that are classified as "hyakinthos." There are also reports of people who have heard flutes playing by itself miles away from any source of sound. This proves that technology existed centuries before Christ where simple instruments could be played loudly without hearing damage.
Ancient writers such as Herodotus and Manetho mentioned several different capitals during the rule of the Hyksos kingdom. However, none of these cities have been found except for one. This shows that probably after only a few generations, the kings began to move their court around looking for a place that was easy to defend and had water available.
According to popular legend, the Hyksos, a mystery troop of alien invaders, seized the Nile Delta around 1638 B.C. and ruled until 1530 B.C. However, written documents of the dynasty are scant, and modern archaeologists have discovered little physical remnants of the ancient military battle. What is known about the Hyksos comes from records found in temples and other buildings they constructed.
The Hyksos were farmers who had migrated into Egypt from somewhere else in Asia. They built large cities as capital capitals for their own use but also left ruins as far away as Greece. After several decades of rule, the last king was overthrown by a new leader called Ahmose (or Amenhotep) who defeated him in combat. The story of Ahmose's victory is told in a famous statue at Karnak Temple in Luxor.
After the defeat of the Hyksos, most towns and villages in the delta were abandoned because they were invaded territory. But some settlements probably became fortified places where traders lived during the reign of the next ruler, Thutmose III (1490-1450 B.C.). He conquered the entire region north of the delta and brought many regions under his control. His army destroyed many small towns in its pursuit of opposition forces or just to make sure that no one was hiding in secret caves with weapons!
The Greeks first used the name "Asia" to refer to the whole region known now as Anatolia in early Classical times (the peninsula that forms the Asian portion of present-day Turkey). The Province of Asia was the name given by the Roman Empire to the whole Lydian territory of what is now northern Turkey. In modern usage, Asia usually refers to the continent, while Europe refers to the other main landmass, Africa being the only other continent larger than Asia.
In English, "Asia" comes from the Greek Ασία, which comes from Ἀσις (asis) meaning "whole". Thus, "Asia" means "all things". The word "asia" itself comes from the Greek phrase στολὴ αἶσα (stoléa aísa), which means "dress material". Today, "asia" is used as a generic term for all things Eastern in particular, or globally.
In Latin, Asia means "coastline", since the word originates from a Greek adjective meaning "having a coastline". Therefore, "Asia" means "all coastal regions".
In French, "Asie" originally referred to the entire kingdom of Aser Iudea. Later it came to mean the area between the Rhine and the Pyrenees where Rome's influence was felt.