Because the octet rule demands eight electrons surrounding each atom, a molecule with an odd number of electrons must break the rule. "Free radicals" are molecules containing unpaired electrons. They are very active substances that can cause many problems in your body if you get too much of them.
Atoms can lose or gain electrons, leaving them with a net charge. An atom will usually try to regain its missing electrons, so every element has a natural tendency to take on a negative charge. However, some elements like phosphorus and sulfur have five valence electrons, leaving them without a net charge and considered "non-metals". Other elements like oxygen and nitrogen have six valence electrons, also leaving them without a net charge and considered "non-metals".
In terms of numbers, atoms need to satisfy the octet rule by having 8 electrons around their nucleus. If they don't, they'll be able to gain or lose electrons until they do. For example, if an atom had only 7 electrons around their nucleus, they'd be able to gain a single electron and become a positive ion.
However, not all atoms need to satisfy the octet rule. For example, hydrogen has one proton and one electron in its nucleus, leaving it with a net charge of zero.
The octet rule refers to atoms' preference for having eight electrons in their valence shell. Atoms with fewer than eight electrons are more likely to react and produce more stable compounds. Elements that follow this pattern include carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, argon, potassium, sodium, aluminum, calcium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, zinc, chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine, astatine, radon, polonium, and lead.
Elements that do not obey this rule include hydrogen, helium, lithium, cadmium, mercury, tin, antimony, arsenic, bismuth, copper, zirconium, hafnium, tungsten, osmium, iridium, platinum, palladium, rhodium, silver, krypton, xenon, ytterbium, erbium, thulium, and uranium.
He argued that elements with an outer electron shell filled with two electrons (sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth) have a tendency to form molecules containing six other atoms.
According to the octet rule, atoms prefer to fill their outer valence shell with 8 electrons. This molecule breaks this norm because, in order to achieve a formal charge of zero, Xe collects a total of 12 electrons. It is able to do so because it has 11 electrons in its 4s and 4p shells.
Xenon has three electrons in its 5d shell, which accounts for 0.01% of its total number of electrons. Thus, according to the octet rule, xenon should be inert. However, it has a melting point of 27.8 degrees Celsius (80.6 degrees Fahrenheit), which indicates that there is some activity within this atom's core. The presence of these extra electrons explains why xenon gas is reactive and can lose an electron to form negative ions.
Xenon has been used in lamps, television sets, and other electrical equipment because it blocks ultraviolet light. It is also used in medical imaging devices such as x-rays because it absorbs energy from these rays thus reducing the amount of radiation required from an external source.
Xenon has several applications in science and technology. It is used as a noble gas in spectroscopy because it has an almost empty d orbital shell. This makes any interaction between electrons in adjacent molecules very strong, which allows scientists to study substances that would not otherwise react with most other elements.
To be stable, all atoms in a molecule must have 8 valence electrons—either by sharing, losing, or gaining electrons—according to the Octet Rule. Atoms tend to share electrons with one another in order to meet the Octet Rule. For example, carbon has 4 electrons in its outer shell and will try to share them with other elements that also have 4 electrons. Sharing electrons makes molecules more stable.
Atoms can lose or gain electrons to meet the Octet Rule. For example, oxygen has 6 electrons in its outer shell and will try to share them with other elements that also have 6 electrons. Oxygen will lose two electrons and become negatively charged. This is called an "oxidation state". Elements that are not chemically reactive can have an oxidation state of +2 or +3. Other elements that can have an oxidation state of -1, 0, or +1 include hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc.
Elements can share their electrons with other elements without bonding to each other. For example, one atom of carbon can share its 4 electrons with another atom of carbon while both remain isolated from any other atoms. This type of bond is called "covalent" because both atoms retain some degree of freedom as they interact via electrostatic forces.
An element can form covalent bonds with other elements to create larger compounds.