Nutrition and chemical components Glycerides are compounds formed by the esterification of glycerol and one to three fatty acids; glycerol is a polyol compound with three OH groups (thus a trial), two of which serve as primary and the other as secondary. The fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated, and they all contain a carboxyl group (carbonic acid) and an alkyl group (a chain of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms). Saturated fatty acids cannot be further modified by chemical reactions and are therefore called simple. They include stearic acid, which is found in animal fats such as beef tallow and butter fat, and palmitic acid, which is present in palm oil and coconut oil.
Components that are generally the same as those found in triglycerides but with different names include phosphatides (which include phophatidic acid and phophatidylethanolamine), sphingolipids, and sterols. Triglycerides are also the main component of waxes.
Triglycerides are mainly used for cooking because they melt at high temperatures. They are also used as a carrier medium for other substances that must be incorporated into foods without changing their taste. For example, soybean oil contains about 7% protein but cannot be processed using typical techniques for vegetable oils due to its strong flavor.
Glycerin, also known as glycerol, is a naturally occurring chemical generated from vegetable or animal fats. It is a clear, colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid with a sweet flavor. As a solvent it is used in cosmetics and medications and as a fire retardant it is added to furniture polish and candles.
In chemistry, glycerin is used as a humectant (a substance that keeps other substances dry), preservative, anti-microbial agent, and emulsifier. It is also used as a food additive for its mild taste and texture enhancing properties.
Glycerin can be made by chemically treating fat with heat or acid. The process of making glycerin via the chemical reaction of sodium hydroxide and sugar is called the Koch process. This is the process used industrially today. The first step in this process is to melt the sugar (either raw or refined) and then add sodium hydroxide to create sodium dihydrogen phosphate and water. The phosphorylated product is then heated to release the glycerin and ash products.
You can also make glycerin by oxidizing alcohol. First, remove the hydrogen atoms from the alcohol using zinc dust or another reducing agent. Next, mix the alcohol with potassium carbonate and let it stand at room temperature for several days.
Glycerol and fatty acids are the fundamental components of fats (lipids). Fats are the end products of the esterification of the trivalent alcohol glycerol with various lengths of fatty acids (between 12 and 20 carbon atoms). Triglycerides account for 90% of all fats, whereas cholesterol contributes for 10% of total lipids. Triglycerides are composed of three molecules of glycerol linked together by three ester bonds with three carboxylic acid groups from each of three fatty acids. The name "triglyceride" comes from the Greek words triglyeron, meaning "three fold", and eidos, meaning "form". Therefore, triglycerides have the formula C3H8O7.
In addition to being a component of fats, glycerol is also used in medicine as a preservative in vaccines and antibiotics, as a skin protectant in cosmetics, and as a standard for measuring blood sugar levels in diabetics. It is also used as a fuel additive to make diesel engines run more efficiently.
Glycerol has many names including monoglyceride, glycerine, hydroxymethyl glucose, and 1,2,3-propanetriol. It is a colorless liquid at room temperature, but it becomes white when cooled down. Its molecular weight is 58.09%.
Glycerol is obtained by reducing glycerin with hydrogen over a catalyst.
Glycerol (/'[email protected]/; also known as glycerine or glycerin; see spelling variations) is a basic polyol chemical. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous, sweet-tasting, and non-toxic liquid. The glycerol backbone may be found in a variety of lipids known as glycerides. It can also be produced by reducing sugars with yeast or bacteria.
Glycerin has many commercial uses including as a solvent, anti-freeze, ingredient in cosmetics, and food additive. It can also be used as a fuel component or carrier gas for aerosols.
Glycerin was first made around 1866 by extracting oil from soybeans or rapeseeds and then treating the resulting crude glycerin with an acid to remove any residual proteins or fats. Today, most glycerin is made by reducing sugar with yeast or bacteria. The process starts with corn syrup (or other simple sugars such as glucose or fructose), which is converted into ethylene glycol and then into glycerin by a series of reactions similar to those involved in making alcohol. This reaction is called oxidizing glycerol.
Corn syrup is the main ingredient in most store-bought flavored glycerins. It comes in two forms: dextrose and sucrose. Dextrose refers to glucose with no associated fructose molecules, while sucrose contains both types of sugars.
Glycerol and Fatty Acids The fatty acids in a fat molecule are ester-bonded to each of the three carbons of the glycerol molecule through the oxygen atom. Because fats are made up of three fatty acids and glycerol, they are also known as triacylglycerols or triglycerides. The number of carbon atoms in the fatty acid chains can be between four and 20 or more. Short-chain fatty acids have fewer than six carbon atoms while long-chain fatty acids have more than six carbon atoms. Medium-chain fatty acids fall in between these two lengths.
When you eat foods that contain fats, your body must break them down into smaller molecules that can then be used for energy. This process of breaking down food into nutrients that our bodies can use is called digestion. Digestion starts in the mouth when you chew your food and break it into small pieces that can be absorbed by the stomach lining. From there, the contents of your stomach flow into the first part of the small intestine where they are broken down further - this is called gastric digestion. The remaining undigested material (fat, proteins, carbohydrates) enters the large intestine where it is passed out of the body in stools (faeces).
During digestion, some of the fatty acids contained in foods will be converted into other substances that play important roles in body metabolism.