Hexane (/'hekseIn/) is an organic molecule with the chemical formula C6H14 that is a straight-chain alkane containing six carbon atoms. Hexane is a major component of gasoline. When pure, it is a colorless liquid with no odor and a boiling point of around 69 °C (156 °F). As one of the most common chemicals in our environment, it has become a part of everyday life for good reason: it is useful for cleaning things like computers and smartphones as well as for removing paint and other materials from objects. However it should not be used to clean people, because it is toxic to the human body.
Hexane occurs naturally in large quantities in crude oil. At low concentrations it may have little effect on humans, but at high concentrations it can be toxic. The main source of exposure for humans is through inhalation of hexane vapors. It may also be present in solid forms such as chips or powder, which can be absorbed through your skin or ingested if you are working with them. Hexane is very soluble in fat: if you eat food that contains fat, then some of the hexane will be stored in your body. The amount that you consume is not likely to be harmful, but there are cases where individuals have had to remove themselves from work sites due to high levels of hexane in the air.
Hexane is classified as a neurotoxin, meaning that it damages nerves.
Hexane, like any compound ending in "-ane," is an alkane. It is a saturated hydrocarbon and is frequently referred to as n-hexane. Saturated compounds have single bonds that connect carbon atoms as well as carbon atoms to hydrogen atoms. These connections prevent the electrons from moving around the molecule which would otherwise happen if there were free radicals present.
A hydrocarbon is any organic compound containing hydrogen and carbon. The most common hydrocarbons are methane (the main component of natural gas), ethane, propane, butane, pentane, and benzene. Alkanes are hydrocarbons with only carbon and hydrogen atoms; they can be straight or branched. The term "unsaturated" means that some of the molecules contain one or more pairs of electrons which are not connected to each other within the molecule. Examples include molecules containing double bonds or triple bonds where two or three atoms share a pair of electrons resulting in a stable structure. Most unsaturated hydrocarbons are also volatile enough to be vaporized at room temperature; this makes them useful as aerosols for spray cans or cooking oil for frying potatoes. Heavier unsaturated hydrocarbons such as oil or fat molecules are generally not volatile and will not evaporate at standard temperature and pressure.
Hexane has six carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms.
N-Hexane is a highly flammable aliphatic hydrocarbon. It is a component of crude oil and natural gas paraffin fractions, as well as an industrial chemical and laboratory reagent. Approximately 99 percent of n-hexane at laboratory grade is n-hexane. The rest is composed of small amounts of other compounds such as tetramethylbenzene, hexamethylbenzene, and dimers.
N-Hexane is soluble in water but only at high temperatures and pressures. It is insoluble in alcohol and most organic solvents. At room temperature, n-hexane is a colorless liquid with a sweet smell similar to that of pine trees. It is slightly toxic by inhalation, causing lung irritation like other hydrocarbons. In large quantities it is also toxic by ingestion, having effects similar to those of petroleum products. The LD50 by oral route in rats is 100 mg/kg.
N-Hexane was first synthesized in 1872 by German chemist Karl Benz who called it "hexane". Before this time, n-hexane had been obtained by condensing ethanol over phosphorus salts or sulfur acids.
In chemistry, alkyl groups are carbon chains attached to hydrogen or another alkyl group. Alkyl groups can have from one to six carbons, and they are the building blocks for more complex chemicals.
1-hexene is a white liquid with a strong odor of gasoline. It is utilized in the production of fuels as well as tastes, fragrances, dyes, and plastic resins. 1-Hexene can also be used as a feedstock for producing pharmaceuticals and chemicals.
1-Hexene is used as an additive to diesel fuel to improve its oxygenate content and reduce engine emissions. It has been shown to enhance combustion efficiency while reducing carbon monoxide emissions.
1-Hexene is one of the three most important components of petrolium oil. It is used as a solvent for paints, metals, and fibers; as a component of some synthetic fibers; and as a feedstock for producing plastics, lubricants, detergents, and insecticides. The largest use of 1-hexene is probably as a feedstock for producing plasticizers such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP).
Hexanal is a saturated fatty aldehyde formed by mono-oxygenating one of the terminal methyl groups of hexane to generate the corresponding aldehyde. It is derived from a hexane hydride. ChEBI. Hexaldehyde is a clear, colorless liquid with a strong odor. It is slightly soluble in water but more soluble in alcohol. Available online. PubChem.
The structure of hexanal is shown below. The carbons on the aldehyde group are attached to three hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Thus, it has the formula CH3--CHO. Because it is unsaturated, hexanal is volatile and decomposes easily into carbon monoxide and acetaldehyde.
At room temperature, hexanal is a yellow liquid that is barely soluble in water but highly soluble in alcohol. It is used as a flavoring agent in foods such as apples, pears, and carrots. It also has a sweet smell that is similar to that of ethyl butyrate. It is obtained from natural sources or synthesized commercially.
Hexanal is used as a chemical reagent for introducing a hydroxymethyl group into molecules. This reaction can be performed either directly with sodium cyanomethanolate or indirectly via an isopropenyl glycol intermediate. The former route is usually preferred because it avoids the use of toxic chemicals.
It is not soluble in water but does dissolve in most organic solvents. At room temperature, 1-hexene vaporizes and becomes a gas.
Hexane is a colorless volatile liquid that is a common component of crude oil. The term "oil change" filter contains large amounts of hexane. When filters are changed regularly, hexane is absorbed by the paper or cloth elements of the filter and then evaporates when the filter is replaced.
Hexane is toxic if it gets into your blood stream. Long-term exposure to low levels of hexane can cause nervous system problems. Higher doses can be fatal due to cardiac failure. Hexane is flammable and burns with an intense smell. It also forms polymers at normal temperatures so keep storage containers sealed until use.
Hexane emissions are only prohibited during certain periods of vehicle usage. For example, you must shut off the engine of a car being driven on a highway in order for it to comply with federal emissions standards.
The distinction between hexane and hexene as nouns is that hexane is (organic compound) any of five isomeric aliphatic hydrocarbons; c6h14; they are colorless, volatile liquids, whereas hexene is (organic compound) any of numerous isomers of the alkene with six carbon atoms and one double bond. Hexane can be converted into hexene by heating it at 250°C for several hours. The two substances are not identical but they are close chemical relatives.
Hexane is used in gasoline as a fuel additive and octane enhancer. It also serves as a solvent for cleaning metals, wood, and other materials. The name comes from the Greek khalkoen, meaning "soap nut," which came about because this liquid was first obtained by boiling oil from soybeans with sodium hydroxide solution and then filtering the mixture to get rid of any residue.
Hexane is toxic if ingested or absorbed through the skin. Exposure through inhalation may occur when hexane is used in degreasing solvents. The health effects of such exposures are similar to those of other organic solvents such as benzene.
Decomposed petrolium (or crude petroleum) contains small amounts of various hydrocarbons including hexane. Crude oil is the solid material remaining after most of the light gas has been released from beneath the surface of the earth during oil seepage or fossilization.