What did Augustus achieve? Augustus brought the Greco-Roman world peace ("Pax Romana"). He formally restored Rome's republic in 27 BCE and launched a series of constitutional and financial changes that culminated in the establishment of the principate. Augustus earned immense popularity as Rome's princeps. He abolished previous laws by which acts of violence had the effect of transferring one's property to another person (usus legis agrarii), and substituted new ones (lex de imperio). He also changed the name of the city from Roma to Augusta Emilia, thus associating his own name with those of earlier kings.
Augustus' most important achievement was to establish peace throughout the Roman world. He ended the wars between Rome's allies and ensured that there would be no further conflict between Rome and its former enemy, Carthage. He also tried to prevent future conflicts by using diplomacy or by arranging treaties with other nations. Finally, he increased prosperity by promoting trade and agriculture and by improving public services such as the roads system.
Augustus' reign was originally scheduled to last only five years but he actually lived more than thirty years. He spent the first nine years of his rule fighting Germanic tribes who threatened Italy and Africa and completed several campaigns before they even started. In addition, he conducted negotiations with various foreign rulers and officials to secure the allegiance of their countries.
Augustus was Rome's first emperor and one of the world's most outstanding leaders. He paved the way for the Pax Romana, a 200-year period of relative peace and prosperity that allowed the Roman empire to have a deep and long-lasting impact on European culture.
Augustus' reign was marked by political maturity and success, especially in pacifying Italy after several decades of civil wars. He also reformed the army and government bureaucracy, established schools for young princes and slaves, and built many public works, including roads, canals, and new cities (such as Augusta Praetoria).
However, his legacy is marred by his alleged involvement in the murder of his colleague Julius Caesar, who was then avenged by the killing of Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium. The memory of this event has been used by many historians to argue that Augustus did not deserve his status as a god after all.
No, Augustus was not the greatest ruler in Rome. That title goes to either Lucius Cornelius Sulla or Marcus Antonius Mark Anthony, depending on which war you consider to be the greatest.
Augustus' reign, which lasted from 27 BCE to 14 CE, gave peace and stability to both politics and commerce. The Roman Senate gave Augustus nearly unrestricted powers, allowing him to restructure both the city and the provinces. As the "first citizen," or princeps, he established the principate. The only other ruler to achieve this status was Trajan, five centuries later.
Augustus' reputation as a great military leader helped secure peace with other nations. He defeated Marc Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and then made peace with Octavian (who would later become known as Caesar Augustus). He also organized campaigns against the Germanic tribes who lived on the borders of Rome and Gaul (modern-day France).
The most important factor in ensuring peace during his rule was the integration of the former Republic into a single empire. The Senate and people of Rome wanted to avoid further civil wars by giving Augustus almost unlimited power. This move turned out to be one of the greatest mistakes in Roman history because it caused resentment among the people and led to the emergence of two new strong rulers: Tiberius and Caligula.
Augustus introduced many changes to improve government efficiency including annual elections for offices such as the Senate and the Tribunes of the People; a system of courts for minor crimes; and a body called the College of Pontiffs that was responsible for religious affairs.
The Senate appointed officers who reported directly to them, not to Augustus himself, thereby preserving some of the autonomy of both body politic.
Augustus began his career as a military commander in charge of large-scale operations. He then used his experience to help draft legislation that improved civil rights and reduced corruption in government. Finally, he was elected as one of two chief priests and given the title "Princeps Senatus" ("Father of the Country"). With these powers, Augustus could make laws, appoint officials, declare wars, and so forth. He also received many gifts from kings and princes who were willing to be ruled by him rather than their parents or older brothers.
As king, Augustus had much to worry about, especially from within his family. His daughter Julia married three times and had children by all three husbands. This left her without descendants and increased the chances that someone would challenge her brother Lucius Caesar for the throne. In addition, several members of Augustus' family were murdered by unknown killers. Some people blamed Livia, Augustus' wife, but she was praised instead for her influence over him.
When Augustus became emperor, Rome had been in civil conflict for many years. He restored peace to the country and began rebuilding much of the city and kingdom. He constructed several roads, buildings, bridges, and government structures. He also fortified the army and captured much of the territory surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The empire he created was the largest yet seen.
Augustus introduced many reforms during his reign. They included changes to the law code, expansion of education, creation of a tax system, and development of public works programs. Under his guidance, two annual military campaigns were conducted against Germany. These campaigns established Rome as an important player on the European stage and helped spread awareness of Roman ideas and values.
He also built several libraries at major cities across the empire. These libraries were used by scholars to conduct research and write books. The most famous of these libraries is the Bibliotheca Augustana in Rome. It contained about a million items when it was destroyed by arson in A.D. 400.
Augustus adopted his nephew Octavian (who later become known as "Caesar" Augustus) after his death in 29 B.C. This act marked the beginning of the imperial dynasty that would last until the end of the Roman Empire in A.D. 476.
Caesar Augustus was one of ancient Rome's most successful rulers, shepherding the city-state from a republic to an empire. During his reign, Augustus brought the Roman state back to peace and prosperity, and he transformed practically every element of Roman life. To some extent, then, Caesar Augustus can be taken as a representative example of the ideal ruler.
Augustus' rule was marked by wisdom and moderation, and it is said that he ruled as if he were a king while remaining officially a princeps (first citizen). He abolished almost all forms of violence against citizens, including slave violence. Theft also was made a crime only after being made a civil offense; that is, once a person lost their job because of it they could not be prosecuted for theft.
He also reformed the army and government bureaucracy, reducing their power over people's lives. Before him, the Romans had no idea how to run an empire; he was the first true emperor.
Augustus' reign saw major improvements in health care, public education, public transportation, and other areas important to daily life. He set up courts for cases ranging from treason through embezzlement to murder, and these courts met in his presence. The Senate was given authority over judges, which meant that it could control who served on these courts. This was a major step toward establishing the rule of law.