Identify the Restoration colonies and their significance in the Empire's growth. When Charles II rose to the throne in 1660, English citizens on both sides of the Atlantic rejoiced at the restoration of the English monarchy after a decade of living without a ruler due to the English Civil Wars. But these were not happy times for England's former subjects in the Americas. Many had suffered through years of war between England and France, then spent more than a century as subjects of the king of Spain. In addition, there was great fear that the new king would not live up to his promises of freedom from Spain. However, many of these colonists had benefited from being part of the British Empire, and so they worked with other members of the empire to help them regain their freedom.
The most significant group of restored colonies were in North America. The main colony on the East Coast was named New York after the duke who led the charge to restore the monarchy. Other important colonies included Pennsylvania (founded by William Penn), Maryland (founded by George Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore), Massachusetts (1629), Virginia (1606), New Hampshire (1623), Connecticut (1639), Rhode Island (1636), Delaware (1638), South Carolina (1670), and Florida (1663). All of these colonies were granted self-government within the framework of the empire. They could make their own laws but could also ask the crown to pass laws for them.
The dispute between the monarch and Parliament that led to the English Civil War and the administration of Oliver Cromwell (1649–60) severely hampered English colonization in North America. The Restoration Colonies were all proprietorships given by Charles to persons who had assisted him in reclaiming the monarchy...
Charles II was crowned king on June 2, 1660, at Westminster Abbey after the execution of his father, Charles I. One year earlier, Parliament had declared war against Spain, resulting in a naval battle at sea near Chile's Valdivian Coast that ended in defeat for England. Now free from internal strife, England embarked on a campaign to regain its former colonial dominance. A series of treaties with various Indian tribes resulted in most of the territories claimed by France and Spain being transferred to England.
In 1663, two years after the restoration, King Charles II married Princess Mary of Portugal and Scotland. The couple had one son, also named Charles, who would later become King Charles III. The marriage was intended to strengthen ties with Portugal, which had been an ally of England during the civil wars. However, the union was not very successful and both parties involved showed little interest in each other. Mary died in 1694 at the age of thirty-seven. Two years later, King Charles II married Anne Hyde, the widow of Earl of Clarendon, in order to secure a legitimate heir to the throne. He did not have any children with either wife.
The defeat of the Dominion of New England and the authorities chosen by James II was a major triumph for the American colonies. The colonists were momentarily liberated from the land's severe regulations and anti-puritanical control. King Charles II even granted some of the colonies limited autonomy.
However, this period of freedom came to an end when William and Mary succeeded to the throne and invited the Dominion back into being. They also asked the former governors of the colonies to help them run their governments. This arrangement would last until America's first presidential election in 1788. By then, all thirteen colonies were independent countries who had their own governments and laws they could vote for or against those leaders.
In addition to this, the colonies now had access to capital from Great Britain. Before this revolution, most colonies had no way to get money except through donations from local communities or trade with foreign countries. With independence, these colonies were able to start businesses and finance projects through exports or loans from British banks.
Finally, the Glorious Revolution provided the framework for future generations of Americans to feel proud of their country. People began calling it "the birthright of all men born in this country" instead of just "the right of Englishmen". In addition, many documents written before and after the revolution referred to us today as "one nation", indicating that we were all united under the crown.
The Re-Establishment of the English Monarchy Despite the fact that they were separated by an ocean, European politics impacted the formation of American culture, sparked some emotions of togetherness among the colonies, and laid the groundwork for self-government. First, let us return to the beginning. On 26 February 1649, following years of civil wars in England, Parliament passed the Act of Restraint of Appeals, which prevented any foreign court from hearing cases involving British subjects. This act excluded the colonial courts from jurisdiction in any matter relating to the affairs of England or her allies.
In addition, the act declared that the throne had been improperly occupied by Charles I's son, who was under age at his death, and that as a result, the throne was now vacant. A new king had to be found, so that England could have a monarch again. The only person who could make this decision was the Parliament of England; therefore, the act entitled "A Bill of Rights" was passed on 2 March 1649. This bill stated that unless there was a future king or queen, then the rights of lords and commons would be equal. It also included provisions for free speech, trial by jury, and protection against unreasonable search and seizure. These acts demonstrated to the world that England was willing to stand by its citizens, even if they were living abroad.
Next, in April 1660, the Convention Parliament met and voted to invite King Charles II to come back to England.