During World War II, Harry Hammond Hess identified the first guyots. Certain undersea mountains, according to his findings, were flat on top. He termed these features "guyots" after Guyot Hall, a flat-roofed geology and biology building named for Arnold Henry Guyot at Princeton University.
Hess was an American scientist who worked with the U.S. Navy in Europe during that time. The navy had asked him to identify areas capable of supporting military bases without harming humans or the environment. Using data from satellites and other sources, he concluded that some undersea mountains were indeed flat topped. He named these features "guyots". The word "guyot" is French for "flat rock".
Hess died in a plane crash in Germany in 1945, just months before the war ended. But his ideas lived on. In 1952, another scientist named Carl Eigenmann published a paper about guyots. Eigenmann was a professor of zoology at the University of Michigan. He had been hired by the National Science Foundation to review research proposals related to oceanic lithosphere. That is science dealing with rocks and minerals that make up the Earth's crust, including their origin and evolution.
Eigenmann proposed that guyots were large bodies of water trapped between two plates that are moving apart due to tectonics (the study of earth's surface geology).
When Swiss geographer Arnold Guyot measured mountains, he usually named them. When the United States Geological Survey became active, they either accepted Guyot's nomenclature or named mountains after persons who were instrumental for founding the national park. These people are called "mountain heroes" by the USGS.
So the names of the four major Washington state mountains came from Arnold Guyot: Mount Adams, Jefferson Davis, Huckleberry, and Glacier.
Guyot was a French scientist who traveled across North America measuring mountains in order to create a map that would show how all the mountain ranges fit together.
In 1821, when Congress passed legislation creating what is now known as the National Park Service, they received advice on how to name the parks from individuals including President Andrew Johnson, Senator Henry Clay, and Secretary of the Interior Benjamin Howard. According to historian John Stokes, these men each suggested a number of names and then members of Congress voted on them. The vote was close on whether or not to name the park after Andrew Johnson so he won out with 37 votes to Henry Clay's 36 and Benjamin Howard's 34.
A guyot, also known as a seamount, is an undersea mountain. Volcanic activity creates seamounts, which may reach heights of 10,000 feet. They can exist alone or as part of larger mountain ranges. The New England Seamount consists of around 30 peaks that reach 994 miles from New England's shore. The Hawaiian Islands are made up of a large number of islands and island chains that were created by volcanoes.
Seamounts can be very important to oceanic life. They often provide critical habitat for species evolutionarily adapted to the harsh conditions found there. For example, the Ascension Island jumbo sea elephant uses these islands as a breeding ground, and their offspring use the seamount as a safe place to swim and play. The mountains also act as natural breakwaters, reducing erosion on nearby shores.
There are several ways that a volcano might build up an underwater mountain. If an island starts out small, it will likely grow in size over time. This is because the weight of more and more rock above causes it to collapse, forming a kind of avalanche that spreads out beneath the surface of the water. As this happens, the island will rise higher and higher out of the sea.
At some point, the weight of all that rock becomes too much for the island to bear any longer. It collapses, bringing down more and more rock with it until the entire area is sunken far below sea level.
The neighborhood was named after an iron foundry along Valley Creek. The Revolutionary War Drill Manual, written by General Friedrich von Steuben, became the standard drill manual used by US soldiers until the War of 1812. It is estimated that just around one-third of the soldiers who landed in Valley Forge wore shoes. This fact has been interpreted as evidence that George Washington expected to win the war quickly and wanted his troops to be ready for action barefoot or not at all.
In 1777, the Continental Congress appointed a committee to find ways to aid the war effort. The group included Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams. They traveled to Philadelphia and met with the government for five months before returning home with a plan for providing economic support to the colonies. The idea came to be called the "American Plan." One part of this plan was to have farmers grow food for consumption by the army and settlers. The land assigned to this purpose was called "Valley Forge."
Valley Forge is a small town in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 7,924 at the 2010 census.
Valley Forge is known for its annual Christmas festival held each year starting on the first weekend in December. The festival includes a parade, candlelight ceremonies at the memorial, concerts, exhibits, and other events.
The festival was started in 1948 by four high school students who wanted to raise money for scholarships.
The mountains, it turns out, are named for one of the greatest explorers in American history, one who ranks among the likes of Daniel Boone, Davy Crockett, and the lesser-known (but as intriguing) Henry Timberlake. His name is Lewis and Clark, and the mountain they explored together is now known as Lewis Mountain.
Big Walker Mountain is one of three major peaks located within the Mount Jefferson range in southwest Montana. The other two peaks are called Little Walker Mountain and Middle Tinkham Mountain. All three peaks are part of a large plateau that extends across most of central Montana. This area was once covered by many glaciers during the last ice age, but now exists mostly as high alpine tundra with patches of rocky soil.
The mountains were first explored by William Clark, leader of the Corps of Discovery when it traveled up the Missouri River toward the Pacific Ocean. In 1805, while exploring the region now known as Montana, Clark spotted what he thought might be a huge grizzly bear from over a hundred feet away. He shot at it but missed, after which time the animal ran off into the nearby trees. Later that day, while traveling down the Yellowstone River, Clark noticed another bear near his camp. This time he was successful with his rifle, killing the bear.
The rocks, also known as sea stacks, originated 65 million years ago by the accumulation of plankton and other microbes. The white rocks, which are entirely made of chalk, were called sometime during the 18th century, before weathering caused some of the other stacks in the grouping to fall. Today they are known as the Harry Rock Group.
Chalk is a type of limestone formed from the remains of marine organisms such as shells and coral. On Earth there are seven major chalks, all of which are found in England. The Harry Rock group is one of these chalks and it lies close to the coast near Whitstable in Kent. This rock formation is very popular with tourists because of its unique appearance. There are several routes you can take when visiting the Harry Rock Group. The most popular one starts behind the lifeguard station at the north end of the beach and goes up on the left hand side. You will then come across a big stack called the Harry Rock - this one's easy to climb! From here you can continue along the top of the cliff or drop down to the right into another great area of rock called the Devil's Kitchen.
You may have seen photos of people climbing up the outside of buildings using only their body weight and gravity to go up past windows and doors. This kind of climbing is known as sport climbing. The sport was developed in Britain and America in the 1970s by climbers who were interested in testing their limits.