As a result, the greetings above would be: Dear John and others, Good day, Kimia and others. Et cetera.
To abbreviate in-text citations containing three or more authors, use the acronym "et al." (meaning "and others"). This is how it works: For example, include only the first author's last name, followed by "et al.", a comma, and the year of publication (Taylor et al., 2018).
One of these is the Latin phrase "et al.," which means "and others." It is used in text citations to abbreviate lists of author names in order to make repeated referring shorter and easier. For example, if an article by eight authors were cited, this would be shortened to "Et al.".
In modern usage, "et al." is often mistaken for the scientific term "et al." meaning "and others," as in "a study conducted by et al." When used in a list of authors, it is necessary to include the full name of each one, as well as their year of birth and death (if applicable).
For example: "The current paper studies the effects of education density on wages using data from Brazil, China, India, Russia, and South Africa."
The full citation for this paper would be "Vecchio L., Mares J. A new approach to measuring human capital: Education density vs. educational attainment. American Economic Review Papers & Proceedings 2014:1-5."
Et al.'s meaning is "and others" or "etc.". Therefore, "Et al." can also stand for "and others things such as cases where the same abbreviation is used for both author and book/article title."
Et should not be followed by a period in et al. Only the word "al" should be separated by a period. Because et al. is plural, it should always be used to replace more than one name. If et al. is standing in for only one author, write the author's name instead. Et al. is also used as an abbreviation for et alii, or etc.
Within the text, use the word "and" between the writers' names, and use the ampersand in parentheses. Only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses in subsequent citations. Et should not be followed by a period in et al. references.
Greetings to groups through email
If there are three or more writers, list just the first, followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in lieu of the names of the remaining authors. (Note that there is a period after the word "al" in "et al. It's also worth noting that there's never a period after the "et" in "et al.").
For example, if John, Jane, and Joe wrote the article, then his name would go at the beginning of the list of authors with et al following later in the document.
Et al means "and others" or "etc." This term can be used to indicate that there are more people involved in some aspect of your research project than what is mentioned in your paper. For example, if you are studying the effects of trauma on children and want to include both adults and children in your research sample, you could say that their data is "contingent upon etc." instead of listing each child by name.
For example, if you were discussing different methods of teaching history and wanted to mention other methods that have been tried over time, you could say that "et cetera" history teachers have found many ways to help students understand past events.