Preparation of Lead Nitrate Solution To make 1000 mL, dissolve 33.12 g of lead nitrate in 1000 mL of water. The aqueous solution should have a light-blue color and contain 0.5 mM of lead (II). Keep the solution cool, but not cold.
Safety precautions When working with lead, follow these safety procedures to protect yourself and others from lead exposure: Wear protective clothing (coveralls, gloves, goggles, or a face shield) when preparing and handling lead. Do not eat, drink, or smoke during preparation or handling of lead. Wash hands thoroughly after handling lead materials. Use a dust mask if you are mixing or pouring large quantities of lead.
Keep children away from any powder or material that may be harmful if ingested. Lead is toxic to humans. Even at low levels of exposure, it can cause serious health problems. Lead can stay in the environment for many years; therefore, even if you were only taught how to prepare lead acetate solutions several decades ago, modern laboratories cannot assume that you still know how.
Preparation of Silver Nitrate Solution In a cleaned and dried 1000 ml volumetric flask, put 100 ml of water. Continue to stir in roughly 17 grams of silver nitrate. Mix in roughly 700 mL of purified water. NOTE: The concentration of the solution is very high, so it should be stored in a dark glass bottle that doesn't contain any iron compounds or other substances that could react with silver nitrate.
Use of Silver Nitrate Solutions In a laboratory setting, solutions containing up to 25 percent silver nitrate can be used directly without further treatment. For more concentrated solutions, dilute with an appropriate solvent before use.
The photoelectric effect was first observed by German physicist Max von Laue in 1914. He showed that certain metals emit electrons when exposed to X-rays. This discovery led quickly to the development of today's digital cameras and X-ray machines!
In chemistry, an electron beam is used to probe the chemical composition of materials. In physics, electrons are used as probes within microscopes and telescopes, and also as sources of electromagnetic radiation.
These are just some of the many ways in which scientists have used electrons over the years. As we learn more about how particles interact with light and each other, we will surely find new applications for them.
The following shows how lead and lysergic acid dissolve in nitric acid. Lead nitrate dissolves readily in water. However, the more concentrated the acid, the greater its oxidizing power. Pb+2 begins to transform into Pb+4 (lead dioxide). As this occurs, red-brown colored precipitate forms in the bottle.
Lysergic acid does not dissolve completely in nitric acid. It remains in the solid state, although it is very soluble. Some researchers believe that some of the lead dissolved from the lead oxide may be incorporated into the lysergic acid molecule, while others believe all of the lead is removed as lead(II) nitrate.
Lead is a heavy metal and is toxic if ingested or absorbed through the skin. Lead affects different organs including the brain, kidneys, lungs, and reproductive system. Children are particularly at risk because their bodies are still developing so they can suffer damage for life even after the lead has been removed from their system. The only sure way to prevent lead poisoning is not to consume any products containing lead.
Nitric acid is used in manufacturing processes where metals must be cleaned from old parts before they are recycled or discarded. So handling lead materials during recycling or disposal should be done carefully to avoid exposing workers to this dangerous substance.
People who work with chemicals on a daily basis are at risk of being exposed to lead.
Make a lead acetate solution by dissolving 40 g of Pb(CH3CO)2*3H2O in water, adding 0.5 mL of CH3COOH, and diluting to 100 mL. The solution is dark red-brown in color.
Lead acetate is used as an absorbent for removing metals such as iron or copper from solutions. It will also precipitate any silver or gold in the mixture.
The lead acetate solution can be used multiple times by simply regenerating it by heating it in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes then cooling it down before using it again.
If you add more than 3 mls of acetic acid to the solution, it will become cloudy rather than clear. Also, if you leave more than 3 mls of acid out, then it will begin to evaporate.
As soon as you have finished using the solution, discard it immediately to prevent any further contamination of your environment.
Make Strontium Nitrate Making it is actually rather easy. Simply combine 45 grams of strontium carbonate, 100mL of water, and 40mL of strong (15.6M) nitric acid and boil until dry. Then heat in a microwave for 10 minutes.
Strontium nitrate is used as a radioactive tracer in experiments on plants and animals. It can also be used as a colorant in glassware. When burned, strontium nitrate produces bright white flames that contain no phosphorus. This color does not burn out even when exposed to the sun for many years.
It is poisonous if ingested or absorbed through the skin. Chronic exposure may cause cancer. Strontium nitrate is banned from use in nuclear weapons because it becomes radioactive after only slightly more than 24 hours. However, it is still used in research laboratories to study how bones heal and new tissue forms.
People have been making strontium nitrate for research purposes since at least 1955. In that year, William McLean of the University of Chicago published results from an experiment using strontium nitrate to study the effects of radiation on bone marrow cells of mice. He soaked cotton balls in liquid strontium nitrate and then placed them under the skin of the mice. The mice survived but their blood cells stopped producing red blood cells and white blood cells.
Simply combine 40 grams of ammonium nitrate with 100mL of water and stir until completely dissolved. Directly filter the mixture through 37 grams of potassium chloride. Gently heat until entirely dissolved, but do not bring to a boil. Allow the solution to cool and pour into measuring cylinders for accurate volume calculation.
Ammonium nitrate is available in most chemistry stores and can be used instead of sodium nitrate if you cannot get sodium nitrite from another source. It is usually sold as a white crystalline powder. Before using it for making bombs, be sure to wash it down the drain to remove any residual salt stains.
Potassium nitrate is available at chemical stores under the name "poison gas". It is used in laboratory experiments to make fireworks, and also acts as a catalyst in the formation of nitrogen oxides when burned. When heated to 300 degrees Celsius or higher, it converts directly into nitrogen and oxygen gases without going through a solid phase first.
Household products such as toothpaste, shaving cream, and deodorant contain ingredients that produce nitrates when they are used up. The nitrates remain in your body after you stop using the product and are absorbed by your blood cells where they become potassium nitrate. This material is used as an ingredient in some gunpowder formulations because of its high explosive power content per unit weight.