The Gene Ontology enables users to characterize a gene or gene product in great depth, taking into account three major factors: its molecular function, the biological process in which it participates, and its cellular location. The GO provides a structured vocabulary to describe genes and their products in an objective, consistent, and comprehensive way.
Gene products are said to have different functions depending on their chemical properties. For example, proteins are responsible for carrying out the complex tasks of living organisms; enzymes catalyze the reactions involved in these tasks. Genes encode the complete set of instructions for making a protein molecule, but they do not tell how it is going to perform its various functions. In fact, the only way to find out is to test the protein by seeing what actions it takes when it is added to a solution containing other molecules called substrates. If a protein does something interesting or useful, then it has performed its function correctly and can be used by a cell or organism to grow and reproduce.
Proteins are the workhorses of cells, performing many important functions including signaling between cells, maintaining the structure of cells, and helping DNA replicate itself. They are also responsible for killing unwanted cells after an immune response has been triggered so that they do not attack healthy tissues. Proteins contain specific sequences of amino acids connected together in particular ways.
Most genes carry the instructions for constructing functioning molecules known as proteins. (A few genes create regulatory substances that assist the cell in protein synthesis.) The process of converting a gene into a protein is complicated and closely regulated inside each cell. It is divided into two key stages: transcription and translation.
During transcription, genetic information in DNA is copied into RNA using enzymes called polymerases. Transcription takes place in specialized structures called chromosomes or nuclei, which are found inside cells. Nuclear DNA consists of two types of subunits: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). DNA contains the genetic information for making proteins while RNA serves as a messenger that transmits this information to proteins that are needed at some point in time. Each time a cell divides, its nuclear DNA is copied into RNA, which is then removed from the nucleus and used by other cells to make new proteins.
During translation, the information in RNA is converted into proteins. This stage requires a set of special molecules called tRNAs to transport amino acids along with the RNA molecule. The third component is a protein complex called the ribosome, which acts like a factory where protein production takes place. Amino acids are combined together in different sequences to form proteins.
However many genes can be expressed at any one time for an extended period, which allows cells to produce the proteins they need for long periods after they have been activated. This temporary expression of some genes is what allows animals to respond rapidly to environmental changes-or when animal growth signals are not required immediately-then to switch back to production of specific proteins when growth signals cease.
Genes are made up of segments of chemical bases called nucleotides. The sequence of these nucleotides within the gene determines how it is interpreted by cells. For example, one segment of the DNA molecule may indicate that a protein should be made with alpha helix structure, while another segment tells cells to make beta sheets. These are the two most common secondary structures of proteins. A third segment might tell cells to add phosphate groups to the protein, while another might signal to remove them. With so much diversity available within the genome, genes can specify almost any type of protein we know how to make.
Genes are like blueprints that cells use to construct proteins. They consist of chains of amino acids linked together. Each link in the chain is derived from a different amino acid.
Is the process through which the information contained inside a gene is converted into a functional product, such as a protein or an RNA molecule. Refers to a cell's capacity to regulate the expression of its genes. The term "gene regulation" was first used by Lewis Thomas in his book The Lives of a Cell. It describes the mechanisms by which organisms control the production of proteins from their genes.
Regulation can be achieved at many levels within the gene regulation quizlet including transcription, translation, post-translational modification, and degradation. Transcriptional regulation involves changes in the DNA sequence that affect the rate at which genes are transcribed into mRNA molecules. Examples of transriptional regulators include transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers. Post-translational modifications include phosphorylation, glycosylation, and acylation. Degradation refers to the process by which cells remove unwanted proteins via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway or autophagy. Regulatory RNAs can also influence gene expression by binding to regulatory regions of other genes or transcripts. This can either activate or inhibit transcription.
The gene regulation quizlet covers topics on chromatin, transcription, splicing, polyadenylation, nuclear export, and RNA turnover. It also discusses genetic mutations that cause diseases by altering the function of genes regulatory elements.
A gene is a short piece of DNA that provides the instructions for a specific molecule, generally a protein. The function of genes is to store data. Each gene carries the instructions for making the specific proteins required by an organism. There are 20,687 protein-coding genes in the human genome. Other genes may control what proteins are produced, how they are processed after production, where they will go in the cell, and other aspects of cellular function.
Genes are made up of sequences of nucleotides (the four basic building blocks of DNA) packaged into chromosomes. The complete sequence of a gene determines whether it will be active or not, so knowing the sequence of a gene is very important for understanding how it functions. Genes can be divided into three main parts based on their function: coding regions, which contain the information for producing proteins; non-coding regions, which include introns and exons; and UTRs, which indicate the start and end of genes. A full description of genes includes their structure, expression, function, and regulation.
Genetic engineering involves changing the content of cells to produce an animal with different properties, such as resistance to disease or food scarcity, or to reproduce in different conditions. This can be done by adding new genes from other organisms or editing existing ones. It is possible to edit genes before they enter the genome, called "knockout" experiments.