Russia and India inked a deal in June 2019 for the four astronauts' training, which they are now completing. According to ISRO, the first crewed Gaganyaan mission would take up to three astronauts on a seven-day journey. They will orbit Earth twice before landing in the Indian Ocean.
India is also working on building its own space station that would be attached to the International Space Station (ISS). The country's plan is to launch this station by 2022. NASA estimates that there are about 1,500 people working in India's space industry.
In 2014, India launched its first human into space with the help of Russia's rocket system. Astronaut Anand Mahindra went into orbit around Earth and returned safely. He was the chairman of the research and development division at the technology company Mahindra & Mahindra until he retired in 2017.
The second Indian in space was 39-year-old American astronaut Scott Kelly. He spent nearly a year in orbit while his partner Andy Thomas on Earth to compare the effects of long-term exposure to microgravity on their bodies. The results were published in March 2019. They showed that even after a full year in orbit, both men remained healthy and were able to survive back on Earth without any assistance from scientists on the ground.
ISRO head K Sivan said that four astronauts have been selected for the expedition. He stated that development on Chandrayaan-3 and Gaganyaan was ongoing at the same time. "In 2019, we made significant work on Gaganyaan." Many of the designs had already been finalized. Four astronauts have been picked for training purposes. They include Rakesh Sharma, U.R. Fernandez, Alexander Gerst and Sergey Volkov.
Chandrayaan-3 is an Indian spacecraft developed by the ISRO Institute of Science and Technology (ISRI) for the Moon mission. It is the third attempt after Chandrayaan-1 to reach the Moon through a lunar orbiter and lander. The mission is expected to provide new insights into the origin of the moon and its connection with Earth. It will also help scientists assess the impact environment of Chandrayaan-1's landing site on the Moon's South Pole.
Gaganyaan is the codename for India's first crewed space flight project intended to send two Indians into orbit around the Moon by 2021. If successful, it would be the world's second manned mission from India after the Apollo program by NASA in the United States. The project is part of India's plan to become a major player in the field of space science.
Astronauts are very important for any space agency or government because they can live outside the earth's atmosphere for long periods of time.
Indian Space Agency Chief K Sivan said today that the Indian space agency has selected four astronauts for India's manned space mission, Gaganyaan. When asked if ISRO is considering a human expedition to the Moon, the ISRO chairman answered, "Definitely someday, but not right now," according to ANI.
The news agency added that Sivan said the country's first human spaceflight could happen by 2022. The government has not issued any official statement on this matter yet.
In April 2019, the ISRO announced that it had successfully tested its human-rated escape system called "Vayu Bharati", or "World Citizen". The test was conducted at the ISRO headquarters in Bangalore with great success. More information about this can be found below in our section about #ISROsaganous.
Also in April, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced at the World Economic Forum in New Delhi that India will launch its own spacecraft by 2020 to send Indians into orbit and one day reach the Moon. This announcement was made alongside several other initiatives aimed at promoting science and technology in India.
Modi said the country would launch its own lunar probe within the next few months and also mentioned that his government was working on a project to build a satellite capable of detecting air pollution across large parts of Asia.
These announcements have not been confirmed by the government yet, so they should be considered as rumors for now.
Find out more about their missions. Nine Canadians have travelled into space, eight of whom are trained astronauts and one of whom is a citizen. Canadians have flown on 13 NASA manned flights as well as two Russian Soyuz missions.
The first Canadian in space was Dr. Yves Rocard, an astronomer who flew on three French missions between 1986 and 2004. The first American in space was Neil Armstrong, an astronaut from Canada who walked on the moon on July 20, 1969. The last Canadian in space was David Saint-Jacques, an astrophysicist who flew on board the International Space Station (ISS) in 2015.
In 2020, NASA will send two people to the ISS, where they will join Canadian astronaut Luca Guercilena and Italian astronaut Paolo Nespoli. This is part of an agreement signed by NASA and the Russian federal agency responsible for human space exploration, Roscosmos, in 2011. Under the agreement, each country will provide a crew member for six months of continuous stay on the station.
Canada has been participating in all five human spaceflight programs launched by Russia over the past decade. In 2010, we announced that we would no longer be involved with Russia's Soyuz program after it became clear that there were no seats available on its future spacecraft, the SpaceX Falcon 9/Russian Dragon.
The Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center is named after Yuri Gagarin, the first cosmonaut to travel into space. The center was founded in 1990 by the Russian Space Agency (Rusnas) and is located near Nizhny Novgorod in Russia. Its purpose is to train new astronauts for future missions to Manned Space Stations and Moon.
At the time of its opening, it was the only facility of its kind in the world. Today, there are several other such centers around the world: USA, Russia, Europe, Japan, India, China.
The training at the Gagarin Center involves about 1,000 hours of instruction over a period of six years, covering subjects such as physics, mathematics, biology, chemistry, computer science, engineering, and human physiology. Candidates must successfully complete a series of tests before being allowed to join a crewed mission.
The first class of recruits started training in September 1991. By 1998, three classes had been completed with a total of 20 astronauts having graduated from the program. Of these, four people didn't go on to fly in space but were still awarded medals for their work.
Only three countries (the Soviet Union/Russia, the United States, and China) have launched their own crewed spacecraft, with the Soviets/Russians and American programs offering flights for astronauts from other countries. Twenty-seven "first flights" happened on Soviet or Russian flights, with the US carrying thirteen. Please keep in mind that all dates are stated in UTC. The Russians started their program earlier than the Americans, with the first human being launched into orbit by the USSR on April 12, 1961.
Here are the crews of each mission:
US/Russian comparison - includes only missions where both astronauts flew on board the same flight; some astronauts had different roles on different flights of their country's program but they still count as part of the same crew since there were no differences in their positions or responsibilities. For example, John Glenn and Sergei Korolev were on two separate missions but they still count as part of the same crew since they were both in command of their vehicle on those flights.
Soviet/Russian comparison - includes only missions where at least one astronaut flew on board the same flight; some astronauts had different roles on different flights of their country's program but they still count as part of the same crew since there were no differences in their positions or responsibilities. For example, Yuri Gagarin and Vladimir Komarov were on two separate missions but they still count as part of the same crew since they were both in command of their vehicle on those flights.