Fourteen additional districts have been established, bringing the total number of districts in the state to fourteen. The Kashmir Province now includes the districts of Srinagar, Budgam, Pulwama, Anantnag, Kupwara, Baramulla, Leh, and Kargil, while the Jammu Province includes the districts of Jammu, Kathua, Poonch, Rajouri, Udhampur, and Doda.
The states of Jammu and Kashmir were carved out of Punjab on 1 October 1949. Before this, both Jammu and Kashmir had been part of Punjab province. The accession of India and Pakistan following independence from Britain in 1947 led to tensions between them. These were heightened after India's nuclear test explosion in May 1998. In September 1999, India and Pakistan conducted military exercises near their border, which led to more tensions. On 14 February 2000, the Indian army invaded Kashmir claiming that it was acting in response to attacks by militants on security forces officers. However, opposition to Indian rule came from within Kashmir too, with some groups calling for independence or merger with Pakistan. In 2001, India and Pakistan agreed to resolve their differences through talks and removed most of their troops from disputed territory but they remain stationed on either side of the border.
In August 2005, a terrorist attack killed forty-five people in Mumbai (then known as Bombay). It was later revealed that the attack was planned by Pakistani terrorists who were living in India at the time. This led to a surge in support for India's right to self-determination from Pakistan.
Jammu and Kashmir districts
The state of Jammu and Kashmir is split into three divisions: Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh, which are further subdivided into 22 districts. While under Indian military rule, the Siachen Glacier was not administered by the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Instead, it was part of the state of Punjab until 1995 when India and Pakistan signed a treaty allowing both countries to claim it.
Jammu Division has two districts: Jammu and Kathua. It spans the northern half of the state, from just south of the international border with Pakistan to about 200 miles north of Delhi. Most of Jammu's population is concentrated in two large cities, Jammu and Srinagar.
Kashmir Division has two districts: Kashmir and Pulwama. It covers most of the state, except for an enclave within Jammu District along the border with Pakistan. The capital city of Srinagar is the largest city in Kashmir Division.
Ladakh Division has one district: Leh. It extends west into Tibet and east into Arunachal Pradesh. The town of Leh is the main commercial center in Ladakh.
What is the difference between Jammu and Kashmir? Under Indian law, Jammu and Kashmir are two different states with a common border. However, on paper at least, Kashmir is treated as a separate state.
Jammu and Kashmir is a union territory governed by India that comprises the southern section of the broader Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a conflict between India and Pakistan since 1947 and between India and China since 1962.
India gained independence in 1947 from the British Empire. In 1948, India became a republic and in 1972, it replaced the title "King" with "President" for its head of state. Since then, every president has been elected by popular vote.
The current president is Ram Nath Kovind. He was elected in 2017 and currently holds the office until 2024 when his term ends.
Before India's independence, the region now known as Jammu and Kashmir was part of Great Britain's Indian Empire. In 1846, the British divided the empire's holdings into two separate colonies: Bengal (now Bangladesh) and Punjab (now part of Pakistan). In 1947, the British government transferred control of Kashmir to India while keeping control of Bengal and Punjab themselves. However, in 1949, India lost control of Sikkim, a former Himalayan kingdom that it had captured from Tibet. In addition, India continues to claim sovereignty over parts of Kashmir that it has occupied since 1967.