The National Accreditation Board-Ghana, which reports to the Ministry of Education-Ghana, accredits universities and institutions. Ghana has nine national public universities. They are all comprehensive, degree-granting institutions, with the exception of the University of Ghana, which is a federal university. There are also several private universities in Ghana.
The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) operates seven research institutes in Ghana: the Central Drug Laboratory & Research Institute in Colaba, Mumbai; the Coastal Research Centre in Cape Coast; the Forest Research Institute in Kumasi; the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunization (JCVI) in Nairobi; the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine in London; the Microbiology Reference Lab at the International Livestock Research Institute in Nairobi; and the National Food Analysis Department at the Ghana Agricultural Research Institute in Takoradi.
There are about 15 colleges in Ghana, which are mainly private institutions of higher learning. They offer courses leading to degrees from the bachelor's level up to PhDs. Many have branch campuses in other countries because of high enrollment rates. Examples include the Ashford University in Ghana, which has branches in Nigeria, and the Adekunle College of Technology in Ghana, which has branches in Lagos, Nigeria, and Ikeja, Nigeria.
Two more professional colleges have been designated as public universities. They are the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources and the College of Engineering and Science.
There is also a university in the capital city, Accra, which is supported by both the government and the private sector.
The National Health Service (NHS) is responsible for providing universal access to quality health care for all Ghanaians. It is a large organization with over 10,000 staff members and a budget of about $150 million dollars. It is divided into 20 regions and 160 districts.
Healthcare in Ghana is still very basic. Only about one in three people living in rural areas can read a map, and only half of those live within five minutes' walk of a road. In cities, the figure is closer to two-thirds.
Almost no one in Ghana has access to clean water or sanitation facilities. The maternal mortality rate is high, at 600 per 100,000 people. The infant mortality rate is also high, at 67 per 1,000 births.
About 95% of Ghana's population is made up of Christians of various denominations. The rest include Muslims and Hindus.
Ghana has fifteen (15) national public universities. They are: Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University of Ghana, College of Law, University of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, School of Pharmacy, School of Dentistry, School of Nursing, School of Optometry, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of West Africa, University of Ghana, Legon, Tamale.
There is one private university in Ghana called the International Christian University (ICU). It was founded in 1975 by a Nigerian priest named Ignatius Ajuru. There are now two other private universities in Ghana called the Abesekwar Tafo Presbyterian University College and the Evangelical University of Ghana. They both opened their doors in 1992 and 1999 respectively.
Each of Ghana's fifteen (15) public universities awards bachelor's degrees. Only a few select schools offer graduate programs. The majority of students attend either technical colleges or community colleges before moving on to a public university. However, a few public universities such as the University of Ghana and the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital allow some undergraduates in social science and medicine to start their studies without previous experience.
See the complete list of Nigerian universities that are accredited. As of 2017, the Nigeria Institutions Commission (NUC) had approved and released 40 federal universities, 44 state universities in Nigeria, and 74 private universities in Nigeria. However, only about 20% of these institutions are currently active.
The quality level of education at most Nigerian universities is poor. Only a few universities are rated highly by any international organization. There are several reasons why most Nigerian universities are not effective contributors to social improvement and economic growth. One of the factors is the high rate of staff absenteeism which results in low-quality teaching and inadequate research activities.
Universities in Nigeria are autonomous bodies governed by councils made up of members with diverse backgrounds. They determine their own policies by adopting guidelines issued by government agencies such as the NUC or others. However, in practice, they have much freedom over policy issues. This lack of control by government leads to some problems including excessive administrative costs, conflict of interest between management and faculty teams, and weak collaboration with other sectors of the economy.
Most Nigerian universities were established before independence in 1960 and have not changed much since then. They follow the traditional model of higher education which means that they rely mainly on tuition fees for their income. This leaves them vulnerable to changes in government policies regarding free education.