I've included a slightly modified version of the following questions. In conclusion, these reading response questions are universal, intellectual, standards-based, differentiation-friendly, and allow for some student choice. 1. What prompted you to read this material? 2. Contrast and contrast this content or media with similar text or media. 3. Analyze the structure and argument of this piece. 4. Describe the main ideas in the text. 5. Interpret what is said in the text by reference to specific examples or cases. 6. State your opinion on the matter at hand. 7. Recommend alternatives for action.
Answers to these questions can be found in the readings or in other materials. They may help you understand more about why someone wrote what they did, how certain views develop over time, or even just what it means to have an opinion on something. Writing answers to these questions enables you to show an understanding of the text beyond simply repeating back what it says. It is also helpful when writing your own responses to academic essays or tests.
The most effective way of answering these questions is by doing additional research or looking at other examples of the same kind of text. This allows you to really understand what is important about the text and make sure that you don't just repeat things because they're in the paper or test. It also helps if you look at more than one example of the same kind of text, since each one will differ in some way.
According to Richard Beach in A Teacher's Introduction to Reader-Response Theories (1993), there are five types of reader-response strategies: Textual-critic method that stresses the text itself (in contrast to other kinds of reader-response criticism); the text drives interpretation as the reader attempts to comprehend it. Interpretive method that focuses on the subjective meaning an individual reader assigns to the text. The reader creates his or her own meaning by interpreting the text through personal experiences and beliefs.
Hermeneutic method emphasizes the essential role of interpretation in understanding a text. It is assumed that the author does not intend meanings that differ significantly from the one assigned to it by the reader. Differing interpretations of a single text can only be resolved by further examining the text itself or other texts by the same author or group.
Political method seeks to understand how texts affect readers' perceptions of politics by focusing on the audience for whom the authors wrote the text.
Psychological method investigates how readers react to particular texts, such as novels, plays, or poems.
How do you use reader-response theories when teaching literature? Readings from different writer/authors within a genre can help students see how various responses have been made to that material by others. Students can also analyze their own reactions to texts they have read independently or in class.
There are five different kinds. According to Richard Beach in A Teacher's Introduction to Reader-Response Theories (1993), there are five types of reader-response strategies: textual A reader-response critical method that stresses the text itself (in contrast to other kinds of reader-response criticism); the text drives interpretation as the reader attempts to analyze it. This kind of reading often involves writing interpretations of the text based on knowledge and beliefs about literature, culture, and so forth.
He goes on to say that most reader-response theories can be placed in this category. Textual analysis is done by looking for signs of understanding or not in the text, which leads to new insights about the work and its author.
Beach also mentions two other categories of reader-response theories: visual and auditory. An example from visual reader-response theories would be Zizek's Lacanian reading of texts as social constructs. With an auditory reader-response theory, one could listen to texts with a focus on meaning beyond what is stated explicitly in the text. For instance, one might hear music in the background while reading a book about classical music.
The last category he includes is personal. This refers to readings that rely solely on the feelings of the reader. These can be good or bad readings depending on whether they bring out qualities in the reader that would otherwise remain unknown.
Reader-response theories were first proposed by Stanley Fish in his book Interpretation Theory (1980).