Mature mammalian RBCs lack a nucleus as well as other organelles such as the Golgi body, the ER, and so on. Alkaryotes are cells that lack a nucleus, similar to erythrocytes, and do not contain a Golgi body. Therefore, Golgi would be absent from alkaryotes.
Option B-Mature mammalian RBC: These cells, too, lack golgi structures. They are non-nucleated, biconcave, circular cells with no membrane-bound organelles. They lack a cell nucleus as well as many other organelles to allow hemoglobin to take up as much space as possible. The only visible feature of a RBC is the membrane, which is folded back on itself to create a sphere that can pass through capillaries less than 7 microns in diameter.
The lack of golgi structures in RBCs means that protein processing does not occur within these cells. Thus, mature RBCs cannot synthesize new proteins and must import them from other cells in their life cycle or from the blood itself. Importantly, this also means that sickle cell disease and other anemias that result from defects in protein synthesis will not be corrected by transfusion therapy alone; instead, transplantation of healthy RBCs is required.
In addition to being unable to synthesize new proteins, RBCs cannot recycle their components either. Therefore, they must remove harmful substances from the blood by scavenging them up through phagocytosis. This process requires more energy than doing nothing, so over time RBCs will become smaller and smaller until they suffer enough damage that they are forced to leave the bloodstream entirely. Their loss does not matter since new ones are produced daily from stem cells located in the bone marrow.
In order to fit more hemoglobin in the cells, mature red blood cells (RBCs) lack a nucleus as well as other cell organelles such as mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum. The Golgi apparatus is still present in RBCs and its function is to modify globin proteins that are being transported to different parts of the cell.
The Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of membranes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. It receives material from this compartment and then sorts it before sending it on its way. It also produces vesicles that are released into the extracellular space or taken up by other cells. These vesicles contain enzymes, growth factors, hormones, and other substances that can be delivered at a distance from their origin without passing through the nuclear membrane.
Red blood cells have a life span of about 100 days. During this time, they lose some of their membrane and protein content because they are constantly being destroyed in your body. They are also replaced with new cells as often as every four months in healthy people. This process is called maturation and requires specific proteins to be delivered to developing red blood cells. Some of these proteins are modified in the golgi apparatus before being shipped out to their destination.
A prokaryotic cell does not have a well-developed nucleus. The nucleus lacks a nuclear membrane. Cell organelles such as Golgi bodies and the endoplasmic reticulum are also absent. Prokaryotes have been assigned to the kingdom of Monera. They lack the internal membranes of eukaryotes and therefore cannot synthesize new cellular components.
Bacteria do not possess DNA sequences that code for proteins. Therefore, they cannot replicate themselves. Instead, their survival depends on their ability to absorb nutrients from their environment and release stored energy during times of starvation. Most bacteria will die if they are not able to divide quickly enough to match the rate at which cells divide in organisms with higher forms of life. However, some bacteria can survive for quite a long time without dividing because they enter a state known as dormancy. During this dormant stage, the bacteria stop dividing but their metabolism does not cease. When conditions are favorable, the bacterium may awaken from its dormant state and resume growing or moving toward another living organism.
Although bacteria do not have nuclei, they are still considered part of the domain Bacteria. Also included within this group are archaea, which are even more ancient than bacteria (see Archaea). Bacteria are divided into two major groups based on morphology and function: Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria.
Cells would be unable to prepare proteins and lipids for transport to different places within or beyond the cell if Golgi bodies were not present. Without Golgi bodies, the cell would be unable to generate a variety of macromolecules or transport enzymes out of the cell. Also, the cell wouldn't be able to control the flow of information into its nucleus because many receptors at the plasma membrane require post-translational modification before they can signal inside the cell.
Golgi bodies are important for cells to function properly because they allow them to create molecules that will be used in growth or communication with other cells. For example, nerve cells need Golgi bodies to create enzymes that will be used by neurons to communicate with other cells. Without these bodies, the cell would be unable to control the flow of information into its nucleus because many receptors at the plasma membrane require post-translational modification before they can signal inside the cell.
In humans, loss of function mutations in either the GRASP65 or GRASP55 gene can cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), a neuropathy where people suffer from pain, muscle weakness, and foot drop due to damage to their peripheral nervous system. People with CMT cannot create proper connections between nerves and muscles because they lack functional Golgi bodies.
In mice, knockout models have been created for both genes involved in CMT disease development.