The Global South, according to either of these conceptions, is not the same as the geographical south. The majority of people in the Global South live in the northern half of the planet. Also called Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the term Southern refers to their status as less developed than the North. The South is also often referred to as the Third World.
In terms of geography, then, the Southern Hemisphere is divided into two distinct regions: Australia and New Zealand to the east of the continent, and Antarctica to the west. South Africa contains both a Northern and a Southern Capes, while Lesotho is the only country in the world that lies on the border of Europe and Africa.
In political terminology, the Southern Hemisphere consists of eight countries: Argentina, Australia, Chile, India, Indonesia, Japan, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa. Of these, only Australia and New Zealand are true democracies. The others are all single-party states with varying levels of authoritarianism. In addition, Paraguay used to be a democracy before it was invaded by Brazil in 1954. This means that there are only six true democracies in all of South America.
In terms of culture, the Global South is very diverse. Each country or region has its own unique qualities that distinguish them from others.
The global north is made up of the majority of first and second world countries, whereas the global south is made up of third and developing world countries. The affluent and developed region is referred to as the global north, whereas the poorer and less developed region is referred to as the global south.
There are two main types of countries that make up the global north: democratic countries and authoritarian countries. A few democratic countries include Canada, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Russia, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Many authoritarian countries include China, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, and the UAE.
In general, countries within the global north have greater political freedom than those within the global south. For example, there are no restrictions on media freedom in Canada or the United States. However, some countries within the global north practice state-sponsored corruption while others do not. For instance, Russia is an authoritarian country that has greater political freedom than Russia. Similarly, China is a democratic country that has greater political freedom than China.
Some countries that appear to be within the global north may have greater political freedom than others. For example, Britain has greater political freedom than Italy or Greece but less free than Norway or Sweden.
The term "Global South" refers to the areas of Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Oceania as a whole. The adoption of the phrase "Global South" denotes a move away from a primary emphasis on development or cultural diversity and toward a focus on geopolitical power relations. The term was coined in the 1970s by British economist Andrew Linden, who argued that since Europe and North America had industrial economies, they could not be considered part of what was then called the Third World.
In more recent years, the concept has been criticized for its Eurocentric view of geography. Some have argued that including Europe when discussing the Global South creates a false distinction between developed and developing countries when in fact many European nations are also developing countries.
Furthermore, some have argued that using the term "Third World" is inappropriate because it implies that these regions are less important than other geographies such as Europe or the United States. Others have pointed out that while there are many developing countries with large populations that are industrially underdeveloped (such as India), some relatively small countries in Europe and North America have very advanced industries (for example, Germany and Canada).
Finally, some have argued that focusing on development ignores the importance of culture. Many developing countries have high rates of poverty but strong cultures that are worth preserving rather than adapting to modern society.
It is one of several words, including "Third World" and "Periphery," that refer to places outside of Europe and North America that are mostly (but not always) low-income and frequently politically or culturally excluded. The phrase was coined in the early 1960s by French Marxist economist Louis Althusser to describe those regions of the world that were still suffering under the influence of colonialism and imperialism.
In recent years, however, it has also come to be used to describe any poor country that does not have its economy dominated by the United States or China. Many countries that were part of the Global South prior to their emergence as powerhouses such as India and Brazil have since left their economic imprint on the region. However, many other countries that were never fully colonized or integrated into the global economy have also joined them include Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen.
Countries like Israel, Malaysia, and Switzerland that are not considered part of either the Third World or the First World are also often included in discussions of the Global South.
Althusser first used the term in an essay titled "For Marx" published in 1963 in French literary magazine Les Temps modernes.
The Global South, according to this second definition, captures the deterritorialized geography of capitalism's externalities as well as a means of accounting for subjugated peoples within the borders of wealthier countries, such that there are economic Souths in the geographic North and Norths in the geographic South. This understanding of the term "Global South" emerged in the early 1990s with the publication of Edward W. Soja's Third World Modernity. The book argued that since the end of World War II, modern nations have been detaching from their colonial pasts by adopting Western models of development that require integrating marginalized populations into market economies.
Soja's work inspired many subsequent scholars to explore how global politics, economics, culture, and technology affect territorial divisions within and between countries. As an example, one study conducted in 2010 found that Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, and Turkey could be considered Norths while Algeria, Angola, Egypt, Iraq, Libya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sudan, and Tunisia could be considered Souts. The study also identified transnational corporations as key actors in the formation of externalities within and between countries. They can do so by locating production facilities in low-cost regions where they enjoy legal protection from local protests or regulations and by utilizing trade agreements that minimize customs duties on goods manufactured abroad but sold within the country.
So far, most studies focusing on the Global South have used this definition.
The term "Global South" has emerged in transnational and postcolonial studies to refer to what is also known as the "Third World" (Africa, Latin America, and developing Asian nations), developing countries, "less developed countries," and "less developed areas." It might also incorporate the word "poorer"... The term "South" in this context refers to those regions of the world that are still economically and politically dependent on Europe and North America. These include Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
The phrase was coined by French academics in the early 1970s to highlight the fact that these were formerly colonized or neocolonized countries, with a shared history of oppression at the hands of Western powers. It also reflects the fact that they remain largely isolated from one another as markets and resources are divided up between the South and the North. In addition, some South scholars argue that because of their location in the Southern hemisphere, they have been able to develop themselves independently of the influence of Northern cultures.
How did it come about? Colonialism resulted in many aspects of life today found in the Global South being modernized through contact with Western culture. This includes science, technology, medicine, agriculture, trade, and transportation networks.
For example, doctors from European countries came to Africa to practice medicine. They introduced new ideas about health care that helped transform local practices.