Any program may be redesigned in four steps: 1 program identification, 2 program formulation, 3 implementation planning and budgeting, 4 monitoring and evaluation planning, and a collection of tools to systematize the defining of objectives and assumptions for a development program and their analysis. These steps are discussed in more detail below.
Stages of Program Design include the following elements:
1. Program Identification - As a part of any planning process, it is important to understand exactly what type of program or initiative you are considering launching. What is its purpose? Who will it benefit? How will it be implemented? To begin to answer these questions, consider the following points: Do some form of research before you start? If so, what kind? Who might it help? What would you expect it to cost? These are all important considerations when designing any type of program.
2. Program Formulation - After you have identified the need for a program and who will be involved in its creation, the next step is to formulate an actual plan for how it will be executed. You will want to think through every aspect of the program from initiation to completion, including who will do what tasks, how much time will be required, and even alternative strategies if initial plans don't work out as expected. Consider the following questions: What assumptions underlie your plan? Are they reasonable?
Following analysis, project planning begins, which involves creating plans that explain the actions to be performed throughout project development, such as software configuration management plans, project and schedule plans, and quality assurance plans. Furthermore, the resources needed for the project are identified. After planning is complete, work can begin on the first task assigned to it.
The purpose of the planning phase is to define the requirements of the product being developed and determine how they will be met through the use of appropriate tools and processes. The goal is to provide clear understanding of the project so that no important aspects are missed during its execution.
During this stage, the project scope is defined which includes identifying all the tasks to be completed by the team members as well as any external parties necessary for the project to be successful. The project manager should also establish what criteria will be used to measure project success and record these decisions in a formal document called a scope statement. This statement can be included in the project proposal or contract when bidding on projects to ensure consistency across projects.
Next, the project schedule is determined. For simple projects, the project manager may be able to estimate how long each task will take to complete and then create a calendar showing when different events will occur (such as milestone dates). But for more complex projects where there are many variables that may affect how long each task takes, the project manager cannot predict exactly how long tasks will take to complete.
The process of developing and implementing a program is known as program planning. Program planning entails several processes, including identifying a problem, selecting desired results, assessing available resources, implementing, and evaluating the program. These processes are discussed in more detail below.
Program planning starts with determining what needs to be done. This may involve interviewing staff members to identify their needs and concerns, reviewing policies and procedures, or some other method. Needs may include improving any aspect of employee performance (for example, increasing job satisfaction), enhancing the workplace environment (for example, reducing stress), or addressing other issues such as complying with laws and regulations. Once needs have been identified, they must be prioritized. That is, they must be rated in order of importance. This process can be difficult because people often have different perceptions about what should be done first. However, it is important to conduct this exercise objectively so that needed changes get made.
Next, the results desired from the program need to be determined. These results may be broad (for example, improving morale) or specific (such as reducing absenteeism). Determineing these results ahead of time will help guide your program selection and implementation. For example, if you want to improve morale, then a good choice would be to implement a company-wide fitness initiative.
Programming's Nuts and Bolts
These processes are referred to as the software development life cycle and comprise planning, analysis, design, development, implementation, testing, and maintenance. Software development projects require a systematic approach that is well-defined by these stages.
The most important stage is the planning stage. It begins with defining the needs of the project and writing these down on paper or using some kind of a tool. Next, the scope should be defined: what will the project include and what will it not include? Will it be a small project that just solves one problem or a large project that covers several topics? The size of the project impacts how you plan it; for example, if you have a limited amount of time, you will need to choose which tasks to do first. Finally, any external parties involved with the project must be identified so that they can be included from the beginning. For example, if the project requires input from users, then these people should be asked for their opinions early on in the process.
The next stage is analysis. Here, the problems that have been identified during planning are examined again to see if they can be solved by using software. If not, then some other method should be found for solving the problem.
Planning, content and techniques, implementation, and assessment and reporting are the four stages of curriculum implementation. Planning begins at the outset of a new school year when staff identify what will be taught and learn throughout the year. Content analysis is used to ensure that materials cover the standards. Techniques are applied to enhance learning (e.g., cooperative learning, problem-based learning). Implementation means making sure that those plans are carried out in a consistent manner across the classroom community. Assessment involves gathering data on student knowledge and skills to make sure that the curriculum is effective.
Curriculum implementation can be a long process that does not always follow a clear sequence of events. It often starts with planning by teachers who want to use their time effectively to maximize student learning. They may meet with their principal to discuss goals for the year and the best ways to reach them. At this stage, it is important for teachers to understand their district's policy on teaching standards and curricula so they know what expectations are placed on them. For example, some districts require teachers to provide their students with a minimum number of hours per week of instruction; others may allow teachers more discretion over their schedules.
Once planning has been completed, teachers begin implementing the curriculum by selecting or creating materials that will help them achieve these goals.