Why is water said to be sticky? Water molecules are polar in the same way as magnets are. The molecule's oxygen side has a negative charge, whereas the side containing the pair of hydrogen atoms has a positive charge. Water surface tension is caused by polar stickiness, which is caused by hydrogen bonding between water molecules. There are other forces at work too-for example, gravity pulls all objects down-but they're not strong enough to overcome the effects of water's polarity.
How does polarity affect water? We can think of water as having two opposite charges on its surface. These charges attract each other, just like the positive and negative poles of a magnet attract one another. This explains why water is highly polarized-it contains an equal number of electrons and protons. An equilibrium is reached when these numbers are the same for both the inside and outside of a water molecule. Any disturbance to this balance-such as with ice melting or acid dissolving into glass-causes polarization to change, leading to a new balance that lasts as long as there is moisture present.
Polarity also plays a role in how easily water moves from one place to another. If you had a pool of water with no net charge, any object that was large enough would float. But if the pool was polar, then the presence of a charge would cause the fluid to behave differently. For example, if the charge were positive, then the stickier the water the harder it would be to move.
Water becomes sticky due to hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds develop between adjoining hydrogen and oxygen atoms of adjacent water molecules in the case of water. A hydrogen bond is formed by the attraction of individual water molecules. This is different from covalent bonding which requires sharing of electrons to form a stable molecule.
These hydrogen bonds cause water molecules to cluster together into networks or structures. If the number of available hydrogen bonds is not sufficient to form a network, then liquid water will collapse into a single layer called an "ice crystal". The energy needed to break all the possible hydrogen bonds and create a continuous network is what keeps liquid water stable at low temperatures.
As temperature increases, more and more pairs of hydrogen and oxygen atoms are moving around randomly. This makes it harder for them to find each other and form hydrogen bonds. Eventually, if the temperature is high enough, they will escape from their bonded states entirely and become gas molecules.
This is why boiling water is necessary to break all the hydrogen bonds and make water molecules free themselves from each other. The energy required for this process is given off as heat!
At very high temperatures, above 1000 degrees Celsius, all molecular bonds are broken and the particles coalesce into a single mass. This is called "liquid metal" state essential for the core of stars.
Two responses Because of the polarity of water molecules, water molecules will stay together. This is known as hydrogen bonding. Water is an excellent solvent because of its polarity, which allows it to stick to itself (cohesion), stick to other substances (adhesion), and have surface tension (due to hydrogen bonding).
Water has a strong polar nature due to the presence of electron-rich oxygen atoms surrounded by a cloud of negative electrons. The oxygen atom has a positive pole and a negative pole, and these poles attract each other. This attraction causes water molecules to cluster together, forming bundles or crystals. The strength of this interaction depends on several factors such as temperature and pressure.
At low temperatures, ice is more stable than liquid water, so there are less chances that ice will melt into liquid. At high temperatures, liquid water is more stable, so there are more chances that water will change into steam. However, at very high temperatures, all water molecules would be moving so fast that they would break every bond with their neighbors, creating a gas that would expand and push out everything in its path.
Pressure can also affect the stability of water. As pressure increases, liquid water becomes more stable, while ice becomes less stable. At some point, ice will transform into liquid under pressure, and at even higher pressures, it will transform back into ice.
Cohesion refers to the adhesion of similar material. The material will be more or less cohesive depending on how attracted the molecules of the same substance are to one another. Water is extremely attracted to each other due to hydrogen bonding. As a result, water is extremely cohesive. Cohesive forces are also responsible for the adhesion between objects made from different materials.
When two objects with adhesive properties contact one another, they will try to pull away from one another. This creates stress on both objects which can lead to damage if the stress is not resolved in some way. If one object is much more adhesive than the other, it will absorb some of this stress and let go of the less adhesive object.
Water is so cohesive that when two objects come into contact with each other, they will always try to stick together. This is why water is said to have "adhesiveness" or a "sticky quality". You cannot separate objects that are in contact with water because the force that tries to separate them is too great.
Things that stick together will eventually become separated if the force acting on them is greater than the adhesive strength. For example, if you were to drop some bread into a bowl of water, it would eventually get washed away because the water is weightier than the bread.
When a polar material is immersed in water, the positive ends of its molecules attract the negative ends of the water molecules and vice versa. Water molecules are strongly attracted to one another due to their polarity, giving water a high surface tension. This property helps prevent it from flowing away when removed from its source.
Polar molecules also have sharp ends that can attach to other molecules. When this happens, they lose some of their polarity and become less attractive to water molecules. This is why cold water feels slippery when you dip your hand into it- the ice cubes break the strong chemical bonds between water molecules and leave behind surfaces with only weak hydrogen bonds.
Water's high surface tension can cause problems when trying to remove it or dissolve substances in it. For example, when water flows over an object, it forms small bubbles that contain air trapped during formation of the bubble. These bubbles will eventually collapse, releasing their air content as vapor into the surrounding atmosphere or back into the pool from which they came. This process reduces the flow rate of water across the object being washed by reducing the volume of water contacting it per unit time.
Water's high surface tension also causes problems when trying to extract alcohol or oil from organic materials such as seeds or fruits.