Acanthocephala is a Latin word that means "spiny head." All Coreidae species feed on plants. Although some coreids dwell in leaf litter, the majority of nymphs and adults reside above ground on their host plants, where they feed on seeds, fruits, stems, or leaves. Some species are specialized for feeding on a particular part of their host plant; others will eat any plant material available. Coreids do not have mouthparts capable of chewing food; instead, they ingest tiny particles using hairlike structures called chaetae (singular:chaeta). Each chaeta can only extend so far from the body before it curves back toward the head of the animal.
Acanthocephala includes several different types of spiny-headed worms found in both marine and freshwater habitats around the world. They are among the most abundant invertebrates in many aquatic systems. Most acanthocephalans are parasites, but a few species are predatory or scavenging.
Acanthocephala species range in size from 2 millimeters to 30 centimeters long. Not all species are edible. The most common type of acanthocephalan eaten by humans is the worm called Anguillicola cristallini. A. cristallini infects the blood vessels of fish. If the worm makes its way into the heart, it may cause cardiac arrest.
Not just insects, but some of the bigger pitcher plants found in Southeast Asia and Australia have been observed to consume fully grown mice and frogs. A dead shrew was discovered in the Filipino meat eater, Nepenthes attenboroughii (named after everyone's favorite naturalist). A frog was pulled from the stomach of a Malaysian pitcher plant species, Nepenthes mirabilis. The frog had apparently been trapped there for more than one year.
Nepenthes are very rare cases of carnivory. Most animals that fall into their traps end up as food for the insect community, but occasionally mammals or birds are also eaten. This phenomenon has been reported from Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Australia, and New Guinea. Nepenthes is often called the "trap-door spider" due to its unique construction with an opening only large enough for its prey to enter. Within these pitchers are complex systems of vessels and glands that absorb water from the surrounding soil. This water is then transformed into toxic chemicals by enzymes present in the pitcher skin. It can take several days for a trapped animal to die of dehydration or asphyxiation.
Do not try this at home! Just like spiders, when you capture live animals you want to make sure they do not bite you. Bites from certain Nepenthes species can be fatal to humans.
4. Members of the Phylum Platyhelminthes (particularly planarians, Class Turbellaria) have their brains and sensory organs in the front of the animal. This is known as cephalization. The sense organs are the first to make touch with the environment in cephalized animals. They include: antennae for sensing smell and sound; tentacular rays for sensing taste and touch; and fin-like structures called papillae for sensing pressure, heat, moisture, and pain.
In cephalized animals, the brain is always behind the eyes. It usually consists of a nerve center called a medulla oblongata that controls muscle movement and other vital functions. Two large nerves branch off the medulla and run forward to the rest of the body. These are the vagus and the spinal nerves. The vagus nerve carries sensory information from the head to the abdomen and gut, while the spinal nerve carries motor information from the brain to the muscles. A third small nerve runs backward from the medulla to the base of the skull where it joins the spinal cord.
In flatworms, such as planarians, the nervous system is organized into a nerve ring around which the animal's body is divided into two parts: the prostomium (or head), which includes the sense organs; and the peristomium (or tail), which includes the nerve ring and some associated ganglia.
Some animals (such as three-toed sloths) consume their leaves, and birds, bats, rodents such as the agouti, and other mammals eat their seeds. Cecropia's hanging spike-like fruits were eaten by eight different monkey species, 12 different bat species, and 76 different bird species, according to one research.
In Central America, the agouti is often called "cecropia" because of its affinity for this plant. The Spanish word for agouti is zécrocité, which comes from the Nahuatl word zēcōciatl, which means "animal with black and white fur."
In Mexico, Brazil, and Paraguay, the guajiro uses the fruit and seed pods of the cecropia tree to make torches for lighting her house at night. The wood is very flammable and burns very hot with a blue color, so it's used for making fireplaces.
In South America, the Yanomami people use the seeds as a food source during times of starvation. They grind the seeds into a powder and add water to make a paste that they then eat.
In Southeast Asia, the cecropia tree is known as "kapurva" in Hindi and "thung krua" in Thai. In China, Japan, and Korea, the tree's bark is used to make paper.
They feed on minute flagellates, ciliates, and microscopic algae. Extrusomes, tiny granules that lay beneath the body membrane and axopodia, catch flagellates, ciliates, and small metazoa that come into contact with the arms. The Actinosphaerium swallows its prey using a combination of muscular contractions and cytoplasmic streams.
An Actinosphaerium can grow to be over two meters long. It has a multibranched tubular body divided into many segments called zooids. The main body is about half as wide as it is long. There are several pairs of short stalks called rhizoids which extend out from the basal plate where the rhizoids and peristome meet. Each zooid contains a single cavity in which the nucleus and other organelles are located. The cytostome is a large opening at one end of the zooid through which food and extrusomes enter. The cytopharynx, a muscular ring around the middle of the zooid, helps push the contents of the cytostome into the esophagus for digestion.
Actinosphaerium have been found living in marine sediment throughout the world. They are typically isolated from their host by the calyx, a protective covering formed by three branched membranes. When conditions are favorable, more than one actinosphere will join together to form a tuberculum.
An entomophagous creature consumes insects (also called insectivores). In various parts of the world, entomophagy (eating insects) is widespread among human cultures.... An entomophage can be an insectivore that eats insects as a major part of their diet or a human being who consumes insects as a delicacy or for other reasons.
Coatimundis forages for food on the ground as well as in the forest canopy, usually ascending to get fruits. This species is most commonly seen on the ground. Coatis are omnivorous, consuming mostly fruit and invertebrates. Frogs, lizards, small animals, and birds, as well as their eggs, may be eaten. They also will drink fresh or saltwater.
Coatis are known to eat many different plants, including those from the family Rubiaceae, which includes coffee beans. They will also eat meat if given the opportunity. In India, farmers use coatis to break up soil before planting crops because they will eat any vegetable planted in the field. They have been known to eat corn, potatoes, peas, tomatoes, carrots, apples, pears, citrus fruits, and spices such as cinnamon and pepper.
In Japan, coatis are used in science experiments to test how animals respond to poison. Scientists give the animals something to eat that contains a poison known to kill mammals. They then watch how the coati react over time to see what injuries they suffer and if they show any signs of poisoning.
Coatis are popular in some countries with zoos. Because they are nocturnal by nature, coatis need to be given access to enclosures at night-time so they can forage for food. Some zoos provide these animals with an outdoor enclosure during the day while others keep them inside all day.