The consequence on China was a weakening of the dynasty, which was temporarily reinforced by Europeans who believed the Boxer Rebellion was anti-Qing. In addition, China was obliged to pay over $333 million in damages. These events contributed to the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912.
The Boxers were a religious movement that began in northern China in the late 1800s. They believed that only followers of Christ should be allowed into Heaven, and so they set out to stop European missionaries from converting people to Christianity. Their extreme actions caused the government to take action - they sent an army to destroy the temples where the Boxers worshipped. This led to the first Boxer Rebellion, which lasted from 1900 to 1901.
During this time, foreigners in Beijing's Legation Quarter were threatened with death if they didn't leave China. Some countries, such as Germany, France, and Russia, withdrew their ambassadors from Beijing and stopped trading with China. The United States refused to join in the boycott but also stopped trading with China.
In May 1904, after three years of fighting, the Chinese defeated the Boxers. But instead of stopping there, the new leader of China, Tung Chan, decided to go further and ban all religions other than Communism. This second part of the Boxer Rebellion continued for another three years until it ended in 1907.
The effect of the Boxer Rebellion on China was that it led the country to the verge of collapse. The Boxer Rebellion was an uprising in China in 1900 against Christians and foreigners. The nationalist group, the Yihequan, was behind the rebellion. They believed that Christianity and foreign influence were harming China and needed to be stopped.
Key facts about the Boxer Rebellion:
- It started in June 1900 when hundreds of people in Qingdao, a city in Shandong province, attacked foreign businesses and citizens' homes.
- The attacks continued for almost two months until 7 August when the Qing government declared war on Japan. This made the Japanese invade China too. In response, the Chinese created eight army groups to fight the Japanese.
- The Chinese army was no match for the better trained and equipped Japanese soldiers. By July 1901, all 8 armies had been defeated with thousands of lives lost on both sides.
- The rebellion ended after several rounds of peace talks between the Chinese and Japanese governments. A treaty was finally signed on 3 September 1901, ending all hostilities.
- The Boxers are often blamed for bringing down China's imperial system but this isn't true. The dynasty had already fallen before the rebellion began.
Countless officials were beheaded, large sums of money were required, and foreign forces were stationed in China as the empire lost authority. In this sense, the Boxer Rebellion was a failure in its aftermath, despite its success in unification. The new government was not able to prevent further attacks by other religious groups, and by 1900, China was divided into several independent countries.
The Boxers came from rural areas where many people had no education beyond the primary level. They believed that if they killed some westerners, this would appease the gods who would then protect them. They attacked foreigners to get their guns so they could kill more Europeans and Americans.
The true number of deaths is unknown but estimates range from 20,000 to 80,000. Most died from starvation or disease rather than combat.
China's elite class was destroyed by the rebellion. An imperial edict was issued on September 3, 1901, abolishing the office of emperor because there was no living emperor at the time. It also abolished the office of prince because there were no longer any eligible candidates. This marked the end of the Qing dynasty.
The rebellion also caused Britain and France to station military forces in China. These forces were responsible for protecting nationals from violence and committing crimes themselves. They used their power aggressively during the uprising and eventually led to the collapse of the Qing dynasty.
The Boxer Rebellion in China resulted in the Western countries abandoning the ambition of colonizing China. Working with China through its imperial bureaucracy looked preferable. Another result was the start of some changes that were accepted by the Dowager Empress. She stopped her attempts to reform the government and leave the palace and let the emperor rule alone.
These events helped the modernization of China begin. Before the rebellion, there had been no real change in China for hundreds of years. Now different parts of the country began to develop their economy and technology.
The Boxers also caused problems for the European powers. They were forced to stop their efforts to colonize China because most of them were unable to deal with this kind of rebellion. This left China open for the Europeans who began to trade with it now that it could not be used as a weapon against them.
Finally, the Boxers showed the world that China was able to fight back against foreign invaders. This made other countries think twice before attacking China again.
In conclusion, the Boxer Rebellion had a great impact on China and the world. It showed that China was capable of fighting back against foreign invaders and it made other countries think twice before attacking it again.