It was used by Persians, Greeks, Mughals, Afghans, and the British, who used it to control the Afghan border. Darius I the Great of Persia captured the land around Kabul in the fifth century bc and marched through the Khyber Pass to the Indus River. Alexander the Great followed a similar route in 327 bc to conquer India.
The name comes from the Persian word for "pass" or "gap" and refers to the mountain gap through which it is possible to travel between Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Khyber is one of the four great Central Asian passes along with the Pamir, Hindu Kush, and Tian Shan ranges. It forms part of the ancient trade route known as the Silk Road that linked Asia with Europe.
Locals call the pass the "Gate of Afghanistan" because it is the only passage into the country from the outside world. Political rivals used to kill each other's sons to stop them fighting in future wars, but now they just make up enemies and send them off to battle together through the Khyber Pass.
The story goes that two young men were doing this when Darius heard about it. Not wanting to risk their sons, they agreed to march out themselves. They were both killed in the fight but their armies kept marching until they reached the Indus River where they turned back.
For millennia, the Khyber Pass has served as a major commerce and invasion route from Central Asia to South Asia due to its strategic location. During the three Afghan Wars, British and Indian soldiers utilized it as an entrance point for their invasions of Afghanistan (the last occurring in 1919). The pass is still today one of the only natural entrances into Afghanistan from the outside world.
In addition to its importance as a trade route, the Khyber Pass also serves as a vital source of water for both Pakistan and India. The Indus River flows through the Khyber Pass, providing water for agriculture and industry in both countries. Without this resource, there would be no modern-day Pakistan or India.
During times of conflict, the Khyber Pass becomes another dividing factor between Pakistan and India. Both nations have had conflicts over the past 70 years including the Kargil War in 1999 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. However these wars often involve more than just one country, but rather two separate countries who have been divided by politics and religion since independence from Britain.
In conclusion, the Khyber Pass is important to South Asia because it is a crucial part of their history and economy. Without the use of the Khyber Pass, Pakistan and India could not exist today.
Invasions of the area, such as those by Cyrus, Darius I, Genghis Khan, and later Mongols like as Duwa, Qutlugh Khwaja, and Kebek, have mostly occurred through the Khyber Pass. The Khyber Pass was not a popular trading route prior to the Kushan period. It became so after they opened up relations with the world outside of Asia.
The first known user of the pass is the Persian king Cyrus the Great (566-530 B.C.). In 539 B.C., he invaded India using the pass as his main supply line. He is also known to have built a city near the pass called Opicarni. This may have been the origin of the name "Khyber."
After him, the pass was used by several other nations including Greeks, Parthians, Sogdians, and Romans.
But the most important user of the pass was the empire of Alexander the Great, which dominated the region for nearly half a century (335 B.C.-192 B.C.). He used it to supply his army with food and goods during his campaigns in Europe and Asia. After his death in 323 B.C., his generals fought each other for power, causing chaos throughout the empire. The last ruler, Antigonus III Doson, only held the pass for a few months before being defeated by Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt in 312 B.
The Khyber Pass was an important section of the Silk Road, a significant commercial route between East Asia and Europe. The Parthian Empire struggled for control of routes like this one in order to obtain access to silk, jade, rhubarb, and other luxuries traveling from China to Western Asia and Europe.
During the First Persian Invasion of Alexander the Great, the Khyber Pass served as their main supply line into India. Afterward, it became part of the empire of Darius I. In the 4th century B.C., the pass came under the control of the Parni people, who were defeated by the Kushan king Kanishka in A.D. 103. The Kushans then began to build several cities in the area that would later become Pakistan. These cities included Peshawar (present-day capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Rawalpindi, and Jalalabad.
In the 5th century A.D., the region came under the control of the Tibetan Empire, but after their collapse, it was taken over by various kingdoms until it was finally incorporated into the Khanate of Bukhara in 1872.
The Khyber Pass is now used primarily by civilians and government officials instead of merchants and travelers. However, it remains one of the most dangerous regions of Pakistan due to its proximity to Afghanistan and the lack of security measures throughout much of the country.
The Khyber Pass has long been an old route into the Indian subcontinent. It has served as a vital commerce route between Central and South Asia, as well as a crucial military site. According to various variants of the Aryan migration idea, the Indo-Aryans crossed the Khyber Pass on their way to India. The first reliable evidence of this passage comes from the 16th century BC records of the Egyptian scribes who recorded some ancient battles involving the kings of Delhi. According to these records, two mighty armies led by two rival kings had clashed over control of the city of Avsaray (in present-day Pakistan). The victorious king is said to have brought his army through the Khyber Pass.
In addition to the historical records, there are also several archaeological sites that prove the existence of this trade route across the mountains. For example, there are many buildings at Taxila with signs of having been destroyed by fire; archaeologists believe this happened when invaders invaded the area using the Khyber Pass as their entrance into India.
Also, there are many coins from the time of Ashoka (the Buddhist emperor) that were found in Pakistan; according to historians, these coins were most likely traded by merchants from India. In addition, there are writings dating back to about 500 AD that mention the Khyber Pass. These documents are notes written by Chinese travelers about certain people they met while traveling through the region.