According to the idea of recent African origin of modern humans, anatomically modern humans began migrating out of Africa approximately 125,000 years ago during the Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic and began to supplant older pre-existing Homo species such as Neanderthals and Homo erectus. However, many scientists dispute this hypothesis because some physical features thought to be unique to modern humans were already present in ancient H. sapiens fossils from Europe and Asia.
By about 40,000 years ago, modern human populations had spread across most of Europe and North America. They replaced the previously existing hominin species with no significant resistance offered by the other members of the genus Homo. The new species was named after its most distinctive feature, the appearance of its skull shape—modern instead of archaic. The term "modern human" is also used for individuals whose genetic markers indicate a recent common ancestry but which lack some anatomical features associated with archaic humans such as Neanderthals or Denisovans. Modern humans are therefore defined by their anatomy, not their history.
By about 7,000 years ago, modern human populations began making more sophisticated tools using materials found within their range. They also began burying their dead, indicating that they believed themselves to be living after death and planning for their future lives. These behaviors were probably inherited from previous generations and may have been important factors in allowing some people to dominate others within their groups.
Early humans lived in caves, rudimentary houses, or tepees throughout the Paleolithic period (approximately 2.5 million years ago to 10,000 B.C.) and were hunters and gatherers. For hunting birds and wild animals, they employed simple stone and bone tools, as well as primitive stone axes. To eat what they caught, they used crude knives and spears.
As for clothing, early humans probably wore skin clothes until about 3500 B.C., when some sort of materialization occurred. From there, things get a bit fuzzy because no more sophisticated garments have been found except on priests and rulers.
Prehistoric people had very limited forms of communication including speech, writing, and gestures. They may have made noises to show that food was ready or danger was approaching, but we will never know for sure because their remains are not available for study.
How did they live? What was their society like? These questions cannot be answered with certainty, but here is what we do know: Early humans were probably nomadic by nature and moved from place to place depending on which foods were available at different times of the year. We also know that they lived in small groups called tribes, which consisted of families who belonged to the same group. Each tribe had its own language until around 3500 B.ck, when two languages merged into one common ancestor of modern day English, French, German, etc.
Humans occupied all of the Earth's continents during the Paleolithic Era (except Antarctica). These migrations occurred because humans were nomadic and in need of natural resources. People had spread over the world after around 70,000 years.
The first humans appeared about 5 million years ago. They lived in Africa, but they may have migrated into Asia through Egypt later. About 2 million years ago, some humans began to use tools made out of stone and bone. They used these tools to hunt for food and kill animals for protection. Around 1 million years ago, humans started to build shelters from materials found in the area where they lived. These early humans were not able to control fire, so they kept themselves warm by using firewood or animal fat. They also cleaned themselves with water taken from streams or lakes.
About 300,000 years ago, humans began to create art by painting on rocks or bones. This was possible because of changes in climate that allowed for more free time. The end of the Paleolithic Era was about 10,000 years ago. Before this time, most people only had access to food that could be hunted or grown within walking distance of their home. After this time, people began to farm and raise livestock, which provided them with more food than what they could eat himself. This led to the emergence of cities and civilization.