Black Hawk fled northward through the Rock River valley, and most of the Indians attempting to cross the Mississippi were murdered in the last fight, or massacre, at the Bad Axe River in what is now Wisconsin. Black Hawk managed to flee but was apprehended shortly thereafter. He was taken prisoner along with about 70 other Indians. A treaty was arranged with Black Hawk and his people, under the care of a white surgeon, Dr. John Bolles. In return for releasing them, the United States government required that they leave the country by November 18, 1832.
The Black Hawk War had been an expensive failure for the United States. Although no Indian tribes joined together to attack Illinois or Indiana, their presence here during the war caused many problems. The most serious issue was the loss of life. Of the 1500 men who left Kentucky for Illinois, only 238 returned.
In addition to the loss of life, the Black Hawk War also cost America money. The war took place far from any major city (Vincennes was the nearest large town), so there was no economic benefit except for the expenses incurred.
American officials believed that by removing Black Hawk from the continent he would cause other Indian groups to surrender without a fight. This idea came from President Andrew Jackson, who wanted a final, clear victory before leaving office. However, Black Hawk's departure did not have this effect.
In Black Hawk's War, which Indian tribe fought against removal? Cherokee Indians were relocated from Georgia to Indian Territory. They refused to leave their homes and fight for another country. Instead, they fought against removal with the help of President Andrew Jackson.
Cherokee leaders decided to resist being forced to move away from their homes. They didn't want to go to Oklahoma either - they wanted to stay in their native land. But the government promised them land in other states if they agreed to move. So, the Cherokee leaders signed a treaty that made it easier for the government to remove them from their home.
President Jackson started to send troops down to Georgia to make sure that the Cherokee complied with the agreement. In 1838, some of these soldiers attacked a peaceful march led by the chief who had signed the treaty. This incident is known as "The Trail of Tears." Many other people were also removed from their homes in this way. After many years of fighting removal, the last group of Cherokees went to Oklahoma in 1886.
According to historian John Mack Faragher, "Cherokee leaders had little choice but to agree to removal because "the army was powerful and could destroy our towns when it chose to do so.
Black Hawk, born Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak (1767–October 3, 1838), was a Sauk Native American band chief and warrior in what is now the Midwest of the United States. Black Hawk died in what is now southeastern Iowa in 1838, at the age of 70 or 71. He is regarded as one of the greatest leaders in Native American history.
After the American Revolutionary War broke out, European settlers entered the Indian country, leading to conflicts that culminated in the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Under the leadership of Black Hawk, the Sauks refused to leave their lands. A series of battles ensued during which Black Hawk was captured. In court he was given permission to go west of the Mississippi River where his people could find land enough for all.
In 1836 President Andrew Jackson issued a warrant for the arrest of two men accused of murdering another Indian agent. When Black Hawk failed to appear at his trial, a warrant was issued for his arrest. He was held without bail for three months before being allowed to return home. There were rumors that he would be killed if he went back to prison, so he left his tribe and traveled alone toward the frontier town of Cahokia, Illinois. When he reached there in August 1837, he told the citizens that he wanted peace with the whites and asked for asylum. Jackson agreed to let Black Hawk lead a group of refugees across the river to western Illinois if any Sauks wanted to join them.