Following the war, the division of the Ottoman Empire resulted in the dominance of the Middle East by Western countries such as Britain and France, as well as the formation of the modern Arab world and the Republic of Turkey.
In Europe, total devastation was experienced by many cities and counties. For example, 50% of Hamburg died in the bombing. Millions of people were left without homes or livelihoods.
However, there were also positive effects from the war. One was that it helped bring an end to the practice of slavery throughout much of the world. Another was that it led to a large increase in health care coverage for many people, especially children, who would have otherwise not had access to medicine.
The division of the empire also meant that most of its territory was no longer able to support itself financially. So Turkey's founders decided to switch their country from being primarily agricultural to being both agricultural and industrial. This move enabled them to become more self-sufficient and to halt further immigration.
Finally, Turkish culture was strengthened by having a common language. Before the war, most people in the empire spoke several languages (Turkish plus one other language). But after the war, English became the official language of the empire. This is because many Turks saw this as a way for them to connect with Europeans and Arabs.
In terms of geopolitics, culture, and ideology, the Ottoman Empire was the most powerful Islamic state. The question remains as to who exactly took over the empire following World War I?
The Turkish National Movement led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk wanted to establish a separate Turkish state. At the end of the war, Atatürk managed to defeat all of his opponents (including the Greeks and Armenians) and gain control of the empire. This event is known as "the Great Liberator" or "the Resurrection and Liberation of Anatolia". Following this victory, Atatürk declared on October 29th, 1922 that the empire would be called "the Republic of Turkey".
However, the empire did not die out at that point; it continued to exist under the protection of the United Kingdom and France until the mid-20th century. In fact, it was not until the early hours of April 23rd, 1920 that the last Ottoman emperor, Abdülhamid II, was forced to abdicate by the Turkish National Movement. He went into exile in Europe, where he died in 1925.
The division of the Ottoman Empire (30 October 1918–1 November 1922) was a geopolitical event that happened following World War I and the British, French, and Italian conquest of Constantinople in November 1918. It resulted in the creation of two new countries: Turkey and Iraq.
Conflicts between these countries have occurred over territory, but also within each country as different groups struggle for power. These struggles often involve violence and sometimes lead to war.
After the First World War, Britain and France agreed to divide the former Ottoman Empire among themselves. In May 1920, Britain issued a treaty with Turkey granting it access to the Sea of Marmara and a protectorate over the Turkish coast from Ordu to Syria. A month later, France signed a similar deal with Greece covering the same region. As part of these treaties, certain territories were allocated to each partner country. However, local tribes did not accept this arrangement and continued their attacks against the newly formed states. This conflict came to be known as the Turco-Greek War of Independence. After many months of fighting, the Greeks defeated the Turks in August 1923. The Treaty of Lausanne, which ended the war, provided for an independent Greek state with territorial claims in Macedonia. However, this agreement was never ratified by Greece's parliament and therefore not effective.
The artificial political boundaries that were established separated ethnic groupings into several new "countries." It also grouped ethnic/religious/tribal groups in the same nation that were not amicable. What modern-day country arose as a result of the Ottoman Empire's demise?
Modern-day Turkey has emerged from the wreckage of the Ottoman Empire. European powers carved up the empire during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and 1922. In 1923, Turkish nationalists overthrew the last caliph and declared their country to be a republic. Thus, Turkey is a secular state whose people are ethnically Turkish but comprised of different religious groups including Alevi, Armenian, Greek Orthodox, Jewish, Muslim.
In addition to being one of only two countries in Europe (the other being Russia) to come out of its own dissolution (the other being Ukraine), Turkey is also one of the most stable countries in terms of government stability. It has had 32 years of continuous rule by one party since 1960, when General Celâl Bayar led a military coup that overthrew the government of Adnan Menderes. The current president is Recep Tayyip Erdogan, who has been in power since 2003.
Turkey is a democratic republic with a constitutional monarchy. Executive power is exercised by the president, who is head of state. Legislative power is vested in both a presidency and parliament.