A crystal is any substance in which the molecules are physically arranged into regularly repeating patterns. Crystal can be found in metals, ceramics, salts, ice, sugar, and rocks. It is not "crystal" glass. In reality, the phrase "crystal glass" is a blatant oxymoron. Even if you were to melt all the glass in the world, it wouldn't become a liquid. The only way to make glass liquid at room temperature is by introducing some atoms of gas such as helium or argon into the mix.
The most common crystals are salt and sugar. Salt contains sodium chloride (NaCl), while sugar consists of carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules bonded together with oxygen (O) atoms. Other common crystals include calcium carbonate (CaCO3) that makes up coral, oyster shells, and limestone; magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) that makes up sand, chalk, and seashells; aluminum sulfate Al2(SO4)3 that gives blood its red color; and silicon dioxide (SiO2) that makes up soil, sand, rock, glass, and wood.
In nature, crystals often form long fibers that are used for reinforcement or insulation. For example, collagen is a protein that helps bones hold their shape. When bone tissue dies, the rigid structure of collagen keeps it in place until it's replaced by new tissue. Natural crystals also include quartz, which is made up of silicon dioxide molecules.
1. "Crystal" is a term that refers to a rock composed of atoms arranged in a repeating pattern that spans all spatial dimensions. The term "crystalline" refers to rocks that have crystal-like features or attributes.
2. Diamond is a crystalline carbon gemstone. Sapphire is a crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Emerald is a crystalline form of aluminum oxide. Ruby is a crystalline form of iron oxide.
3. Crystal has negative connotations because it usually implies something fragile and delicate. Crystalline suggests strength and hardness.
4. Diamonds are the hardest natural substance. Silicon dioxides are second only to oxygen as the most abundant element on earth. Aluminos are third after silicon and oxygen. Graphite is the softest known material and is used for writing tools. Halogen is a chemical element with one electron in its outer shell and six electrons in its inner core. It is extremely reactive and can be found in chemicals such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Krypton is a nonmetal element with an atomic number of 36. It is a colorless gas that is used in lighting equipment.
A crystal, also known as a crystalline solid, is a solid substance whose components (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are organized in a highly ordered microscopic structure, resulting in a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. Crystallography is the scientific study of crystals and crystal formation. Within this field, biocrystallography is the study of biological materials that form crystals.
Biological crystals include those found in living organisms. They can be organic, such as collagen in bones or keratin in feathers, or inorganic, such as calcium carbonate polymorphs used by mollusks to build their shells. Organic crystals are generally flexible while inorganic crystals are rigid; they also tend to be more porous than their organic counterparts. Biological crystals are important for determining the molecular shape of proteins, which in turn tells us about how they function. Also called bio-crystals.
At its most basic level, a crystal consists of identical molecules or ions that are arranged in a three-dimensional network.
In nature, crystals are ubiquitous: they can be found in the forms of rocks, minerals, and gemstones. In technology, crystals are used to produce goods such as glass, windows, and jewelry. Crystals are also important elements in many technologies, including electronics, optics, and physics. The properties of crystals make them useful in various applications such as construction materials, semiconductors, and optical devices.
When two crystals with different structures but the same atomic arrangement touch each other, they may join together to form a new crystal with a composite structure. This is called "solid state reaction". For example, if salt and sugar are mixed, then a salt crystal will grow out from the surface of the sugar molecule.
Salt and sugar have very different molecular shapes, but when they are mixed together they form a single compound because of their similar atomic arrangements. When this happens, it is called a "solid state reaction". A salt crystal will grow out of the sugar molecule.
Glass, wax, and many polymers are examples of amorphous solids. Diamond is the only naturally occurring pure crystalline substance.
Pure crystals can be obtained by melting other substances to remove their impurities or by growing them from solution. The first evidence of the existence of crystals dates back to 2800 B.C., with evidence suggesting that they were used for jewelry making and tooling. In 1665, Isaac Newton described how light was transmitted through transparent crystals. In 1729, Daniel Bernoulli discovered that when ice is dropped into water it produces a loud sound because each molecule of ice hits another one with such force that they both break apart and create a small jet of water vapor that travels at supersonic speed.
Bernoulli's discovery led to the development of modern physics; however, its applications include ice cream machines and rock concerts where sound waves are used to produce music or noise.
Pure crystals are used in a wide variety of technologies, including electronics, optics, and chemistry. They provide stability and versatility to technology products because their molecular structures can be designed to react to various stimuli (heat, pressure, chemicals, etc.).
A crystal is a three-dimensional, repetitive arrangement of atoms or molecules in an inorganic (not living, nor derived from something alive) homogeneous solid (meaning a solid having the same characteristics at all places). The atoms or molecules that make up a crystal are usually very small--less than 100 nanometers across. A crystal can be as small as a single cell or as large as a mountain.
All crystals are insoluble in water, most minerals are crystalline compounds. However, some minerals such as talc and chalk are amorphous, meaning they do not have any specific pattern and are not composed of repeating units. Some organic materials exhibit long-range order at low temperatures but lack it at higher temperatures (for example, honey becomes a glass at about 140°C). Silicon dioxide (quartz) is the only mineral that is both soluble and stable at high temperature. Even so, quartz is rarely found in nature because the presence of oxygen causes it to absorb energy and become unstable at body temperature.
The oldest known crystals date back 3.5 billion years. They were found in sedimentary rocks formed from seawater that had dried up after a volcanic eruption covered them with lava. These crystals provide evidence of the earliest life on Earth.
Modern science has revealed that many minerals possess unique properties that cannot be explained by their constituent elements alone.