Epidemiology is defined as the scientific, methodical, and data-driven study of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and occurrences (not only illnesses) in defined populations (neighborhood, school, city, state, country, global). The focus is on identifying causes and determining factors for differences between individuals or groups.
Health concerns are many and varied, from infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS or influenza to chronic conditions like heart disease or cancer. Epidemiologists have developed methods to examine the connection between health issues and different exposures, with a goal of preventing illness and promoting health.
They have used this knowledge to identify risks and protect people from harm, including risks associated with alcohol consumption, smoking, obesity, and physical activity. Epidemiologists have also studied how our environment affects our health, including pollution, dangerous buildings, and inadequate housing. Finally, they have tried to understand why some people are more likely than others to get sick or suffer from accidents. This knowledge has helped them develop interventions that promote health and prevent illness.
In conclusion, epidemiologists study patterns and distributions of health issues within populations to better understand what causes these problems and to provide information on how to prevent illness and promote health.
2010. The purpose of study defines epidemiology as "the identification of variables that influence the incidence of health events in human populations." R. Saracci 2010. "Epidemiology is the study of population health and illness." C.L. Mastroianni 2010. "The goal of epidemiology is to describe and explain the patterns of occurrence of diseases and other health outcomes at a group (i.e., population) level."
1905. The Royal Society of Medicine defined it as "the study of epidemic diseases and their causes".
1896. The term was first used by Arthur Hill Hassall during an address before the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
What is the difference between epidemiology and public health? Epidemiology focuses on understanding how individual behavior affects the risk of getting a specific disease while public health focuses on preventing disease through identifying risks, evaluating interventions, and promoting health behaviors.
Epidemiology is the scientific study of the distribution and determinants of health states within populations. It uses statistical methods to estimate the effects of exposure to various factors on the probability of someone in a population developing a disease or other health condition. Epidemiological studies can be observational (using historical data or information obtained from existing databases or clinical trials) or experimental (using random assignment of subjects to different treatments).
Epidemiology is the study of how frequently and why illnesses occur in various groups of individuals. Epidemiological data is used to design and evaluate disease prevention initiatives, as well as to guide disease care in people who have already developed disease. The science of epidemiology has its roots in medicine and public health.
An epidemiological process begins with the identification of a disease or disorder among humans or animals. This initial step may be done by observing one or more cases of the disease within a population. Medical professionals who make this discovery will often search for patterns in how and where the disease strikes within the population. They may also look for differences between people who do and don't get sick to identify risk factors for disease development. Risk factors are characteristics of an individual or their environment that may lead them to develop the disease. For example, someone who lives in a house with lead paint might be at higher risk for developing lead poisoning than someone who lives in a house without lead paint. Once risk factors are known, efforts can be made to prevent people from becoming ill by advising them about ways to reduce their exposure to harmful substances, such as lead paint, or providing them with medical treatments or interventions if they are already exposed.
After identifying a potential cause of illness, next comes the task of determining how likely it is that the cause will result in new cases of the disease.