Rank the following compounds in order of increasing water solubility: methane, CH4; 1-hexanol, C6H13OH; magnesium chloride, MgCl2; and propane, C3H8. Methane is the least soluble compound.
Methane is a colorless gas that is used as a fuel for cooking and heating. It is also used to produce electricity via a process called "methanation." The most common source of methane is natural gas. Other sources include cattle farms and landfills. Natural gas is made up of several gases including methane which makes it very useful because it is flammable and has high heat content. However, methane is also highly soluble in water so it will dissolve into water over time.
The human body is made up of approximately 50% water by weight. Water is essential for life because it is used to transport nutrients around the body and remove waste products from cells. It also helps our bodies maintain temperature, pH balance, and elasticity of tissues. People who do not get enough water may feel tired, irritable, weak, or have headaches. Drinking water that is contaminated with chemicals, such as those found in fertilizers or pesticides, can lead to gastrointestinal problems, headaches, or neurological disorders.
Some substances are less soluble in water than others.
Which of the following alcohols has the lowest water solubility? Butanol CH3 (CH2) 3OH is the least water soluble. It has a greater number of carbons than methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (CH3CH2OH). Butanol is more soluble in oil than water.
Ethanol is more soluble in water than butanol. This is because ethanol can form hydrogen bonds with two other molecules instead of only one as in the case of butanol. The more active sites for bonding with other molecules that an alcohol has, the more soluble it will be in water.
Methanol is more soluble in water than ethanol. This is because ethanol can form hydrogen bonds with two other molecules instead of only one as in the case of methanol.
Butanol is less soluble in water than methanol.
Ethanol is more soluble in oil than butanol. This is because butanol can form hydrogen bonds with two other molecules instead of only one as in the case of ethanol.
As a result, HgS is the least soluble chemical. Its solubility in water at 25° C is 1.8 g/L.
Other insoluble compounds include AgCl (5.3 g/L) and PbO(s).
The greatest concentration factor is found with NaHSO4, which has a value of about 2250 g/L.
H2SO4 is another strong acid and it also forms salts. The salt that it most commonly occurs as is sodium hydrogen sulfate (Na2SO4). It has a density of 2.15 g/mL and its solubility in water is 0.5 g/mL at 25° C.
Sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3), which is a salt that contains both acids, is more soluble than sodium hydrogen sulfate because there are more hydroxide ions present in sodium hydrogen carbonate than there are sulfate ions. Also, the carbonate ion is more polar than the sulfate ion. This means that it would be expected to dissolve into smaller molecules which could then dissolve more easily into water.
Water dissolves all sodium, potassium, and ammonium salts. 3. Except for lead, silver, and mercury (I), the chlorides, bromides, and iodides of all metals are soluble in water. HgI2 is a metal that is insoluble in water. Organic salts such as those derived from gluconic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acid are also soluble in water.
Most salts are soluble in water. Some salt deposits contain up to 99% water by weight and are referred to as brines. These salts are usually dissolved during mining operations because heat is needed to release the gold or other minerals from the rock. The only solids left in the brine after mining ends up being the gold particles. If the miner fails to evaporate enough water, the salt content of the solution will increase until it reaches the point where no more water can be added and the mixture becomes saturated. At this point, any additional water will just dissolve more salt - not gold. Saturated solutions cannot be further diluted with more water; all the salt will remain in the tailings pile along with any gold that was in the ore but was not recovered with the cyanide solution.
Some salts do not appear to dissolve in water at all. For example, calcium carbonate (the main ingredient in limestone) does not dissolve in water even under high pressure.
It is water soluble, mildly soluble in ethanol, and soluble in Acetone, ethyl ether, chloroform, petroleum ether, and coal tar hydrocarbons are also soluble in it. It is not soluble in ammonia, olive oil, or vinegar.
C18H38 is a fatty acid that has been used in food production and as a component of other products such as soaps. It can be found in coconut oil, palm oil, beef tallow, sheep's wool, and fish oils. C18H38 is also used as a precursor to create other compounds such as cholesterol, vitamin D, and prostaglandins. Prostaglandins play an important role in the regulation of blood pressure and inflammation.
C18H38 is slightly soluble in water at 25 degrees Celsius; however, at higher temperatures its solubility increases. The solubility of C18H38 in alcohol is more than 10 times greater than its solubility in water. Alcohol itself is a solvent, which means that it dissolves other substances including C18H38. C18H38 is insoluble in ammonia, olive oil, and vinegar.
C18H38 is used in making surfactants for cleaning products.
Polar substances dissolve in water, and this universality may be extended to the most polar compounds of all—ionic compounds. The most common ionic compound, table salt (NaCl), is soluble in water (360 g/L). Other significant ions are calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++), potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl-).
Ions are driven off when plants take up water, which leaves them behind as dissolved salts. So, if you drink water that has been through a plant, you will be drinking some of our minerals in their ionized form. Ionic minerals are much more reactive than other minerals and tend to drive other minerals out of the system during digestion. For example, if you ingest large amounts of table salt (sodium chloride) over a short period of time, you will likely lose potassium along with it. Potassium is an essential mineral for human health and deficiency in humans can lead to fatigue, muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, increased risk of heart attack, and more.
Calcium and magnesium are important minerals for bone health. However, like sodium, they can be removed from the body when taken in large quantities. If you eat a lot of calcium-rich foods such as milk products and vegetables and ignore the signals from your body to keep peeing to remove excess calcium, you could end up with kidney damage.
Solubility in Water Water dissolves eight of the twelve potential powders (dissolve in water). Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, cornstarch, and potassium bitartrate are the four insoluble substances. These items cannot be dissolved in water.
Insoluble powders do not dissolve in water. They will not disperse into small particles like salt or sugar would. Insoluble powders remain as large particles that can only be dispersed using a dispersant. Sodium bicarbonate is an example of an insoluble powder that can be dispersed using a dispersant such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium chloride.
Dispersants are chemicals that can break down other molecules into smaller pieces, making them more soluble. Dispersants can also make insoluble powders more soluble. For example, sodium bicarbonate is very insoluble, so it would not be able to be used as a pH indicator without a dispersant. Calcium chloride can reduce the size of sodium bicarbonate particles so they can dissolve more easily in water.
There are three types of dispersants: detergents, surface-active agents, and emulsifiers. Detergents work by breaking down other molecules into smaller pieces or forming micelles that can carry other molecules or particles away from each other.