A British government and a sovereign monarchy are in place. Until the Ottoman Empire was partitioned in the twentieth century, the area currently known as Iraq was a portion of the Ottoman Empire. It was divided into three provinces, known as vilayets in Ottoman Arabic: Mosul Vilayet, Baghdad Vilayet, and Basra Vilayet. The capital of the province of Mesopotamia was Baghdad.
Before the rise of Islam, modern-day Iraq was inhabited by many different cultures including Assyrians, Babylonians, Sumerians, Arabs, Kurds. It is also home to one of the oldest human civilizations in the world - the Mesopotamian civilization.
Assyria was one of the first countries to emerge after the collapse of the Old World. It was founded by people from present-day Turkey and Syria who were displaced when the Hittites lost their kingdom to the Egyptians. The Hittites built a powerful empire which stretched from Egypt to far away borders with present-day Iran and Afghanistan. But they, too, were eventually defeated by another ancient civilization - that of the Babylonians. After the fall of the Hittite empire, many kingdoms rose and fell until finally the Babylonians were conquered by the Persians. With the death of Cyrus the Great, the Persian empire collapsed and was divided among his sons. Artaxerxes I gave Mesopotamia to his brother Ochus who established its first official government.
Iraq (the historical Arabic name for a portion of the region) was to be carved out of the three former Ottoman provinces to become a British mandate. Syria and Lebanon were taken over by France. The British surely sown the seeds of future conflict by carrying out their mandate. They encouraged the development of industry and commerce, built schools and hospitals, and tried to improve living standards. At first, most Iraqis welcomed the British as liberators from Turkish rule. But as time went on, many Iraqi nationalists began to criticize the mandate system, arguing that Britain should have granted independence to their country.
The term "mandate" is used to describe any agreement or treaty in which one country agrees to act as an agent for another country or countries. Most commonly, this refers to a country agreeing to act as an administrator or governor under the direction of a senior official from the sending nation. However, it can also refer to a country being placed under the control of an international body such as the United Nations. Iraq was ruled by a monarchy but was not considered independent since no Iraqi government could veto U.N. resolutions. Instead, the king acted as commander-in-chief of the Royal Air Force and maintained diplomatic relations with other nations.
In practice, Britain's influence in Iraq was limited since the country had no army or air force to speak of. The RAF was responsible for providing security through its presence at several military bases across the country.
Iraq is a nation located in southwest Asia. Mesopotamia was the ancient name for the territories that today comprise Iraq. Following World War I, the Ottoman provinces of Baghdad, Basra, and Mosul merged to become the modern nation-state of Iraq. Baghdad is the capital city. Located around 500 miles (800 km) north of Iran and 450 miles (750 km) south of Turkey, it has an average temperature of 45 degrees F (7 degrees C).
Baghdad was originally a small Arab village, but it grew to be the capital under the rule of the Abbasid caliphs from 750 to 1258. It was subsequently conquered by the Mongols who ruled over most of Asia until they were defeated by a coalition of armies led by Prince Edward of England. In 1783, the area came under the control of the United Kingdom following the Battle of Baghdad. In 1914, following the outbreak of World War I, the UK declared itself to be the supreme authority in Iraq; however, this decision was reversed two years later when the country was divided into autonomous regions. Saddam Hussein became president in 1979 and initiated a series of radical economic reforms and military buildups which led to his invasion of Kuwait in 1990, causing the collapse of his regime and the start of the Gulf War.
Iraqi democracy began to take shape after the Gulf War with the formation of national assemblies in 1991 and 1992.
The modern nation-state of Iraq was formed in the aftermath of World War I (1914–18) from the Ottoman provinces of Baghdad, Basra, and Mosul, and takes its name from an Arabic term used in the premodern period to describe a region roughly corresponding to Mesopotamia ('Iraq' Arabi, "Arabian Iraq") and modern northwestern...
Get more facts about Iraq's history at http://www.historyworld.com/countries/iraq.htm.
Ancient Iraq: The ancient country of Iraq was known as Mesopotamia until the 17th century BC when it was annexed by the Assyrians. It was subsequently conquered by the Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans before being incorporated into the Islamic Empire in 638 AD. After the collapse of the Islamic State in Iraq in 2017, many areas not controlled by the government were left with significant infrastructure damage or destroyed entirely. Some experts believe that if current trends continue, we will see another increase in internal displacement of people within Iraq from 2018 to 2019.
Following his death in 2006, elections were held in 2010 which saw Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki retain power despite protests calling for a new vote.
Following this, Iraq became a province of the Turco-Mongol Ilkhanate, and its prominence dwindled. With the end of Ottoman control in World War I, Iraq was governed by the British Empire as Mandatory Iraq until the formation of the Kingdom of Iraq in 1933. Following a coup, a republic was established in 1958. In 1960, Iraq entered into a treaty with Israel, but this agreement was not ratified by the Iraqi government.
Iraq suffered greatly under Ottoman rule. Although officially a vassal state, in practice it acted as an independent country with its own parliament, army, and government. However, this independence was short-lived because Britain sought to preserve its influence in the Middle East and helped Iraq develop its military strength so it could serve as a counterweight to Iran. The resulting alliance lasted for more than 50 years. When it came time to renew the treaty in 1994, however, Iraq refused to comply unless Turkey joined the agreement too, but this request was denied by the Turks. Iraq also refused to join the Gulf War coalition against Saddam Hussein, who had invaded Kuwait in 1990. After the war, Iraq was ordered to surrender all weapons of mass destruction, but it kept hiding them instead. In 1998, the United Nations passed a resolution authorizing military action against Iraq if evidence of its continuing WMD programs were presented to them. During the following year, several countries including France, Germany, Russia, and China issued a joint statement saying they would not supply weapons to Iraq if sanctions were imposed on it.