Opposition to rapid secession was much greater in the upper South, where slavery was less prevalent and identification with the North was more prevalent. Virginia, Tennessee, and Arkansas followed a wait-and-see approach, at times asking for a convention and at other times rejecting requests. In both cases, their decisions were influenced by the opinions of their constituents.
In Virginia, opposition to separation was strong but it wasn't enough to prevent secession after the lower South left the Union. Virginians believed that slavery could be protected by legislative action rather than by immediate withdrawal from the Union, and so they waited until after the firing on Fort Sumter before declaring their intention to leave the Union. After secession, many slaves fled to the upper South where they were free before the war began. Others remained behind when their owners sent them away or sold them to raise money for the army. Still others fought for the Confederacy.
In Tennessee, opposition to secession was also strong but not strong enough to prevent the state from leaving the Union after the lower South did so. Like Virginians, Tennesseans believed that slavery could be protected by legislative action rather than by immediate withdrawal from the Union, and so they too waited until after the firing on Fort Sumter before declaring their intention to leave the Union.
The North desired that the new states be "free states." Slavery was considered evil by the majority of northerners, and several northern governments prohibited it. The South, on the other hand, desired that the new states be "slave states." Cotton, rice, and tobacco were all quite taxing on the southern soil. Therefore, having slaves help work the land allowed the southerners to remain profitable while still providing for their families.
Another issue regarding slavery that divided the north from the south was that the north wanted to stop importing slaves from Africa. The idea was that if slaves weren't available over seas then they wouldn't be available in America either. However, the south depended heavily on slave labor and would have found some other way to profit if it wasn't for the fact that slaves are useful for agricultural work which is necessary in order to produce cotton, sugar, and other commodity crops.
In conclusion, slavery was an issue that divided the north from the south. The north opposed slavery and the south relied heavily on it. This led to many disputes between the two groups that didn't seem to be going away anytime soon.
Many people in the South supported slavery or wanted Kansas to be recognized among the states that supported slavery for political reasons. Slavery was widely opposed in Kansas by those from the North. When the two sides began to contest the area, election fraud, intimidation, and some violence ensued. In 1856, Republicans created a permanent organization to combat Southern expansion into Kansas, which became known as the Border Ruffians.
In addition to being against slavery, many people in the South also were against Indian removal because it meant losing land that they considered their own. The Indians had been given land in exchange for giving up their traditional ways of hunting and farming and had been allowed to stay there despite having no means of making themselves useful to anyone. They had been given blankets and food and sent far away from home without ever being taught how to farm or mine or build things. In order to make room for these Indians to live, everyone else's land was taken.
People in the South also opposed Indian removal because they believed it was done without permission from Congress. Removal violated the spirit if not the letter of the treaties with the Indians and was seen as an act of war by some commentators at the time. Finally, people in the South opposed Indian removal because they feared that freed blacks would take their jobs. There were more than 100,000 slaves in Kansas before the war; after the war, there were only about 6,000 black residents there.