When chromosomes are not properly separated during anaphase, the cell has an aberrant amount of chromosomes. Anaphase is a stage in the cell division process known as mitosis. Anaphase errors can result in either the typical two cells following mitosis or one large cell because the two cells never split apart. Humans usually have 22 pairs of chromosomes; any change to an individual chromosome results in abnormal development and disease. Chromosome abnormalities are responsible for many mental disorders including autism, schizophrenia, and intellectual disability (1). A person might have one normal copy of chromosome 9 and one missing copy (9), or they could have three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the usual two (21). Abnormalities of other chromosomes may also cause health problems. For example, people with three copies of chromosome 17 develop Williams syndrome, a disorder that includes such characteristics as hyper-social behavior, elfin faces, and small hands and feet (17). Disorders caused by aneuploidy include infertility, miscarriage, and stillbirth. Aneuploidy can also lead to cancer.
In humans, anaphase begins with separation of the chromatids into two groups: maternal chromatids separate from paternal ones. This process requires the activity of the spindle apparatus which consists of microtubules and associated proteins. The second step in anaphase is movement of the chromatids toward the center of the cell. This process requires motor proteins such as kinesins and dyneins.
Anaphase is the fourth stage of mitosis, and it is the process by which the duplicated genetic material held in the nucleus of a parent cell is separated into two identical daughter cells. Each pair of chromosomes is divided into two identical, independent chromosomes during anaphase.... In most animal cells, the nuclear envelope breaks down as the cell divides, allowing for the duplicated DNA to be distributed between the daughters.
In some types of cancer, the process of anaphase can be disrupted, resulting in polyploid cells that have more than two copies of each chromosome. These cells are prone to forming tumors when injected into mice. Further research has shown that genes responsible for preventing cancer may be deleted from these cells, causing them to become tumorigenic.
Anaphase is also important in organogenesis because it allows equal division of tissue-specific stem cells. For example, intestinal epithelial cells must divide repeatedly in order to replace themselves. If this process were not controlled properly, excessive replication of DNA would lead to uncontrolled growth of these cells and cancer. Anaphase regulation is therefore critical for maintaining genome stability in cells that can divide indefinitely.
Finally, anaphase plays a role in evolution because it allows organisms to reproduce without risk of mutation. Since anaphase cannot be prevented once it has been initiated, its occurrence must be expected every time cells divide.
Anaphase is a cell division stage that occurs near the conclusion of mitosis. Chromosomes migrate away from each other during anaphase. Anaphase was originally used in German, and it comes from the Greek ana-, which means "back." So, anaphase means "moving back."
During anaphase, the chromosomes are moving back to their respective poles so that they can be divided into groups of two. This process is called segregation. Only the chromatids of each chromosome can segregate individually, so individual chromosomes cannot segregate until after anaphase has been completed. Segregation is not perfect, however, so some chromosomes may have only one chromatid or no chromatids at all. If this happens, the cell will fail to divide itself correctly and will die instead.
Anaphase begins with separation of the chromatin material into two distinct masses: one mass containing the centromeres and the other containing the telomeres. As the name suggests, the centromere is the region of chromatin that forms the core of the kinetochore, which is a structure that attaches chromosomes to spindle microtubules. The telomere is the end portion of the DNA molecule that lacks the protein coating that protects the rest of the chromosome. Without the protective coating, the DNA becomes shorter when the chromosome replicates itself.