The North Korean Army had been completely beaten, with only survivors escaping into the mountains to engage in guerilla warfare or retreating north to seek refuge in China. The Eighth Army had solid positions along the Ch'ongch'on River, midway between the 38th Parallel and the Yalu. General William F. Dean, commander of the United Nations Command (UNC), ordered an attack on these positions.
North Korea's most famous battle took place at Pork Chop Hill. The North Koreans had built a series of defensive positions there, including two large concrete bunkers connected by a trench. The hill was an obvious military advantage for its defenders, but it could be taken by an assault from the south. On June 25, 1951, the UNC launched its attack, with tanks from the U.S. 3rd Marine Division and infantry from the U.S. 1st Infantry Division leading the way. Within hours, the North Koreans abandoned their positions and ran away, leaving behind many weapons, food supplies, and medical equipment.
After this victory, the UNC advanced down the peninsula, seizing more than 20,000 square miles of territory before ending the war in July 1953. This area is now known as South Korea. The war resulted in an agreement by both sides to cease military action and work toward peace. However, fighting would resume in June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea without provocation. Over 60,000 people lost their lives during the conflict.
After a series of losses, the Chinese army withdrew from Korea and fled into China's northern territory of Manchuria, with the Japanese army hot on its tail. Japan invaded China's Liaotung Peninsula, which juts out into the Yellow Sea between China and Korea. The peninsula was rich in resources that both countries needed at the time.
Liaotung is a large island off the coast of China's Shandong Province but it has a small port city on it called Dagu. This is where the war began to take place. Japan also has an island near Korea called Tsushima. This is where the battle of Tsushima took place in May 1905. This battle decided who would control East Asia - Japan or China. China lost this battle and Japan went on to dominate the region. In 1945, when World War II ended, Japan surrendered to America instead of Russia because America showed mercy towards Japan after it lost many people in its country.
Korea has two sides to it - North and South. During the Korean War, they were divided along political lines - with China supporting North Korea and Russia backing South Korea. Many lives were lost during this conflict - men on both sides - but most of all, children. There were also many refugees fleeing the violence together with their parents and grandparents. Some countries gave asylum to refugee families who reached their borders, while others turned them away.
In January 1951, Ridgway rallied his multinational army and pushed back to the Han River valley. On February 11, 1951, the Chinese started their Fourth Offensive, bolstered by a revived North Korean army. Again, the opening strikes hit unprepared South Korean units, and the UNC yielded. This time, however, the UNC held their ground and forced the Chinese back into their trenches. The battle lasted until April 3 when the two sides stopped fighting and signed an armistice.
In October 1950, MacArthur flew to Japan to replace the ailing Willoughby who had been unable to lift the siege of Seoul. Upon arriving in Tokyo, MacArthur called for reinforcements and additional arms to be sent to the peninsula. Then, on November 1, he returned to the United States to prepare for further military action against the North.
On June 25, 1951, President Truman ordered military action against North Korea. An amphibious assault was planned for Pusan Perimeter, but this plan was changed when it was discovered that the North Koreans had built more than 100 miles of new trench lines across their front. These fortifications were too strong to attack directly, so the UN forces decided to blockade the country instead.
North Korea's leader, Kim Il-sung, had visited China in May 1951 looking for support. However, the Chinese government was still upset with the UN after its failure to honor the truce agreement, so they refused to help North Korea.