All of Pakistan's main metropolitan cities, including Lahore and Karachi, have the least amount of drinking water accessible. Most urban water supply pipes are rusted and fractured, allowing sewage water to flow into drinking water lines in many older portions of cities. This results in unhealthy levels of contamination.
Accessible water resources are also limited by geography. The Himalayan range runs through most of northern Pakistan, preventing water from flowing south toward India. Parts of the northwest have large deserts that do not contain enough water for domestic use.
Rainfall is greatest in the southwest, but much of this region is desert or mountainous terrain that cannot support agriculture without extensive irrigation. The same is true of the northeast, where flooding occurs but only during monsoon seasons which vary by year.
Despite these limitations, Pakistan has more freshwater than oil or natural gas. Lake Districts cover 30 percent of the country and provide employment for one in eight Pakistani workers. They are also used for energy production using hydroelectric power plants. Rivers account for another 19 percent of the land area, but only 3 percent of the national income.
The remaining 67 percent is made up of saline lakes and marshes, many of which lie within urban areas.
It is obvious that these sources of water are polluted and require sufficient processing to be safe for human consumption. For a long time, four main cities in Pakistan have used surface water: Islamabad, Karachi, Rawalpindi, and Hyderabad. Aquifers provide approximately 70% of the water used for drinking reasons. These aquifers are being depleted at an alarming rate due to the lack of regulation and enforcement of groundwater extraction laws.
Overuse of groundwater has led to severe land subsidence in major cities such as Karachi and Lahore. This problem is exacerbated by poor design standards for housing construction which results in a lack of consideration for groundwater recharge. Poor sanitation also plays a role - with many people not using sewage drains instead releasing their waste into natural bodies of water such as ponds or the sea. This leaves the water contaminated with bacteria from human feces.
The use of untreated wastewater for irrigation is another cause for concern. The agriculture industry in Pakistan uses about 20% of the country's electricity supply and accounts for more than 10% of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing amounts of wastewater are being dumped into lakes and rivers because there is no other option available for disposal. This practice puts pressure on already limited water resources and can result in contamination.
Finally, climate change is likely to affect the availability of water in the future. As temperatures increase, the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere increases too.
Is it safe to drink Karachi tap water? No, tap water is not safe to drink. According to WHO data, 91 percent of Pakistan's urban and rural regions have access to upgraded, on-demand water sources. In Karachi, Pakistan, tap water is no longer acceptable! It contains too many chemicals that are harmful to your health.
The best option for drinking water is bottled water because it has no contaminants in it. Bottled water is not expensive in Karachi and there are many places where you can get purified water. You should also know that the quality of bottled water varies from brand to brand and cannot be guaranteed. For example, one brand of bottled water may taste great while another one could make you sick. If you are buying bottled water in Karachi, make sure it is from an established company that has no complaints about its product.
If you have no choice but to use tap water, then you should only drink it in moderation. The government recommends that you do not consume more than 125 ml (4 oz) of water per hour so as not to overload your kidneys. Young children and pregnant women should not drink any amount of tap water.
Karachi's tap water is not suitable for consumption due to its high content of bacteria and other pollutants. Even though most people in Karachi purchase packaged food items that are not directly touched by soil, the fact remains that the city does not have a clean environment.
Due to persistent droughts, a growing population, and mismanagement of water resources, residents of Karachi, Pakistan, have been experiencing acute water shortages. The city's water supply originates from the Indus River System, which flows through several other cities and towns before emptying into the Arabian Sea. The river system suffers from overexploitation due to poor management by government officials and lack of investment by private companies.
In 2013, water levels in the Indus were so low that they threatened eight million people with famine. The crisis was exacerbated when floods damaged hundreds of miles of canal infrastructure, preventing water from being diverted away from areas where it was needed most.
The Pakistani government has taken some steps to address the water shortage, such as reducing leakage and improving efficiency at public dams and power plants. However, more needs to be done if Karachi is to have sustainable access to water in the long term.
Karachi's population has increased by about 5 million since 1980, when data on municipal boundaries was first collected. This number is expected to reach 30 million by 2050. This would put additional pressure on an already stressed water supply system.
The government of Sindh, which includes Karachi, has also failed to invest in new sources of water.