Trichonympha is a genus of single-celled anaerobic parabasalids of the order Hypermastigia found only in the hindguts of lower termites and wood roaches. Trichonympha is a well-known cell due to its bell form and hundreds of flagella. These organisms are widespread throughout the world in soil, freshwater, and marine habitats contaminated with rotting plant material.
In nature, trichonympha may infect the gut of a termite host in a manner similar to how Giardia infects animals. However, instead of establishing a long-term infection as Giardia does, trichonympha appears to complete its life cycle in about two weeks.
In laboratory experiments, trichonympha has been shown to infect mice by the oral route, causing diarrhea. Also, infected hamsters developed blood abnormalities similar to those seen with leishmaniasis virus.
Human infections have been reported but are rare. Infection occurs when humans come into contact with animal feces containing trichonympha bacteria. The infection can be passed on through contact with raw meat or untreated manure.
Trichonympha was first described by German scientists in 1994. It is named after the three necks of the bell-shaped organism which extend beyond the surface of the cell.
The genus contains only one species: Trichonympha erato.
Trichophyton is differentiated morphologically by the production of smooth-walled macroconidia as well as microconidia. Macroconidia are generally borne laterally directly on the hyphae or on short pedicels, have thin or thick walls, are clavate to fusiform, and measure 4–8 × 8–50 mm. Microconidia are produced in large numbers within the macroconidia and are released when they break away from the parent macroconidium. They are carried by wind or water and deposited at a new site, where they can germinate and grow into new colonies.
Microscopically, trichophytons can be recognized by their hyphal morphology. The generality of this fungus causes it to be polyphylic, which means that more than one type of organism can reproduce asexually through mitosis. Thus, trichophytons are heterothallic, which means that each reproduces using either of two mating types: a and α.
The most common trichophyton species to infect humans is T. rubrum. It is found in soil with high levels of phosphorus and nitrogen, such as compost heaps and manure, and has a worldwide distribution. T. tonsurans is another common human trichophyton species that usually affects individuals with hair loss due to alopecia areata or other conditions related to androgen deficiency. This fungus was first described by French dermatologist Pierre Marie in 1883.
The parasitic nematode (roundworm) The human whipworm is another name for Trichuris trichiura. This worm infects more than 100 million people worldwide.
Trichuris is a genus of whipworms that can cause severe intestinal problems if not treated. There are several species in this genus including T. suis, which only affects pigs; T. trichiura, which affects humans and other primates; and T. ovis, which only affects sheep. These worms live in the large intestine where they feed on bacteria and waste products. As they grow larger they can cause inflammation or obstruction of the colon.
If you are infected with Trichuris trichiura but do not know it, you will probably not feel sick. However, the parasite may be causing damage to your intestines without you knowing it. Infection may have been ongoing for many years before you become aware of it through blood tests or imaging procedures.
The only way to find out if you are infected with these parasites is through testing. Our lab tests for Trichuris eggs in stool samples. If you are found to be infected, then treatment is needed to prevent further infection and any possible complications.
Trichoplax is made up of at least six different types of somatic cells: dorsal and ventral epithelial cells, lipophils, fiber cells, gland cells, and crystal cells. These different cell types play various roles within the organism. For example, the fibers that connect adjacent trichoplax fibers together are derived from the secretion of gland cells. The crystals that make up its skeleton are produced by crystal cells.
Within the trunk region of a trichoplax colony, you can usually distinguish three different cell types. The dorsal and ventral epithelial cells form the outer surface of the animal. They extend thin processes called microvilli that project into the surrounding water. The lipophil cells comprise about half of the total cell number and are found mainly in the head region. They contain large amounts of lipid (fats) which provide energy for moving around and for protecting the animal against bacteria and other organisms that might harm it. Fiber cells make up the rest of the cell population within the trunk region and they too extend processes that connect pairs of trichoplax fibers together.
In addition to these three main cell types, trichoplax have several other cell types including glands that produce fibers for weaving together with other trichoplax to form colonies, and crystals that make up the skeletal structure of the organism.
Arthropods are trilobites. They resemble little hard-shelled insects and are commonly referred to as "bugs" by fossil collectors, but they are not related to insects. Trilobites are an extinct arthropod group (like crustaceans). There are about 28,000 known species in five major groups: cyclonic lobsters, oceanic lobsters, crayfish, freshwater lobsters and trilobites.
The word "trilobite" comes from the Greek words trios ("three") and laos ("piece of land"). Thus, it means "three-lobed creature."
Trilobites were important members of the ancient marine ecosystem. Some species grew large enough to be used as food for larger animals. Others had bone-crushing shells strong enough to be used as weapons by some predators. Still others made beautiful fossils that have helped scientists learn more about the evolution of organisms.
You may have seen pictures of trilobites in your history class. Although they look like bugs, they are actually arthropods (a phylum including crabs, shrimp, spiders, and mollusks as well as insects). The term "insect" only applies to the modern descendants of trilobites' ancestors - crabs and shrimps. Insects are part of the deuterostome lineage within the animal kingdom.