Solids, liquids, gases, ionized plasma, quark-gluon plasma, bose-einstein condensate, and fermionic condensate are the seven states of matter that I am studying. Definition of "solid" in the Chemistry Glossary. The solid phase is characterized by a fixed arrangement of molecules or atoms without any significant movement within the structure. According to physics, all physical systems may be described as being made up of particles called atoms, which interact with each other through strong forces. These forces can hold an atom in rigid place but cannot prevent it from moving around a nucleus if there are no other particles present to interact with it. All elements are composed of atoms, which are the smallest particle that can be divided into two distinct parts: a positively charged nucleus and a negatively charged electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. The nucleus contains neutrons, which are not visible, so electrons provide our only view of nuclei. In chemistry labs, you have likely seen diagrams that show atoms as if they were surrounded by invisible clouds called electron shells. These are simply theoretical constructs used by physicists to help them understand how atoms work. An electron shell represents where an electron could possibly be found given certain conditions. For example, an electron in an oxygen atom would have its outer shell fully filled with eight electrons, so it would be unable to occupy any more space.
When atoms combine to form molecules, they do not always do so at random.
Matter exists in three states: solid, liquid, and gas. Solid: Matters with a set volume and shape are referred to as "solids." For instance, stone, wood, brick, ice, sugar, salt, coal, and so on. These matters are called "solids" because they will not melt even if you put them in water indefinitely. They can be crushed or broken into smaller pieces but never dissolve in water.
Liquid: Matters that are in a continuous flowing state are referred to as liquids. For example, water, alcohol, syrup, soup, paint, ink, and gasoline. These substances are called "liquids" because they will slowly flow if given time enough. You can mix liquids together to create new products. For example, when you mix water and alcohol, you get something that is not quite either liquid or solid. It's called "water" (liquid) mixed with "alcohol" (a kind of liquid).
Gaseous: Matters that are in a very small amount of space are referred to as gases. For example, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, ozone, flour, and many other chemicals. These substances are called "gases" because they can fill up most of your room.
Matter is made up of particles called atoms. All matter is made up of molecules.
Solids, liquids, gases, plasma, and Bose-Einstein condensates are the five known phases or states of matter. A material can only exist in one phase at a time; it cannot be solid and liquid at the same time nor can it be gas and liquid simultaneously. The four other states are possible because each state can be either solid or liquid with no intermediate stage.
In physics and chemistry, a phase is a distinguished state of matter. Physics focuses on the properties of materials that are not restricted to their composition but also include their structure, which is their arrangement of molecules. Chemistry focuses on the elements and compounds that make up all matter and determines their properties by adding and connecting atoms together to form molecules. Matter can be composed of particles that are even smaller than atoms such as photons or neutrinos. However, we will focus on matter that contains atoms as its building blocks because they are the most common and important form of matter in the universe.
There are three different ways that physicists classify substances according to their physical properties: solids, liquids, and gases. A fourth type of substance, plasma, is special kind of gas that occurs when small particles are suspended in a gas. These particles can be electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules themselves.
The five matter stages Solids, liquids, gases, and plasma are the four natural states of matter. A solid can only change into a liquid or gas, and a liquid can only change into a gas or plasma. However, a plasma can change back into a solid or a liquid.
Atoms in solids are tightly packed together with little space between them. This means that they cannot move around very much compared to atoms in a gas, and this is why solids are rigid. Also, electrons are bound up with the nucleus of an atom, which has positive charge, so they cannot fly away from it unless something else gives them energy to do so. This means that atoms in solids are stable and will not change unless someone tries to push them around too much.
Atoms in liquids are more spread out than those in solids, which makes liquids more flexible but also makes them less dense than solids. For example, water is made up of molecules that have two atoms bonded together with one oxygen atom between them. These molecules can move around more easily than individual atoms, which is why liquids are fluid.
Gases are completely free-floating particles that are separated by empty spaces. This makes gases very light and hard to hold together.