England (Wales), Spain (Hispania), France (Gaul or Gallia), Greece (Achaea), the Middle East (Judea), and the North African coastline region were the primary conquered countries. Other territories were incorporated into Roman provinces, such as Germany (modern-day Germany and Poland) and Africa (modern-day Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya).
The Romans invaded Britain in A.D. 43 and proceeded to conquer it within five years. They also invaded southern France but were defeated by a German tribe called the Cimbri. The defeat caused the collapse of Roman authority in Europe south of the Danube River. After this event, the Romans only controlled what is now Italy and parts of France.
However, they continued to expand their territory by making war against other nations for control of fertile land. These campaigns made the Romans famous and led to much economic activity and development of infrastructure across their empire.
In fact, many historians believe that the Romans started the first true "Industrial Revolution" when they developed a need for faster shipping so they built their own ships out of wood and used these boats to transport goods from place to place. Before this time, people used donkeys or horses to travel around their country so there was no need for fast sailing vessels.
The Roman Army conquered the empire, and the Roman way of life was established in the conquered lands. These are called the "provincial" territories of Rome.
Rome also created several other provinces where they did not go into battle themselves but rather sent out allies to do it for them. These were called "client states" of Rome. Examples include Syria and Egypt which had their own governments but were controlled by Rome.
Finally, there is one more type of province that we should discuss here: "protected territories." These were countries that were granted protection by Rome but were not given full citizenship rights. Instead, they were allowed to govern themselves but could ask for assistance from Rome if needed. For example, Italy and Germany today are protected territories.
During Rome's early years, the city-state was terrified of its more powerful neighbor, Carthage. But after several wars, Rome defeated its rival and absorbed much of its territory into her own empire.
Rome also conquered many smaller nations around the world. These include: Libya (now part of western Africa), Syria (present-day Syria), Turkey, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Slovenia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, Austria, Italy (the Italian Peninsula and islands such as Sardinia and Corsica), and some parts of present-day Ukraine.
Rome's army consisted mainly of heavy infantry called "maniples" that were formed up into cohorts or groups of about 600 men. Each maniple had its own commander who would send orders by shouting them out so all the others could hear. Then they would go into battle together. The army also included a variety of other soldiers including archers, slingers, javelin throwers, and cavalry troops on horses or in chariots.
The Romans used their experience with city warfare to their advantage when fighting overseas. They built roads and bridges when necessary and used their engineering skills to create siege weapons such as battering rams and scorpions.
1 Rome's Ascension and Fall The Roman Republic conquered Italy by 200 BC, and over the next two centuries it conquered Greece and Spain, the North African coast, much of the Middle East, modern-day France, and even the isolated island of Britain. And all of this was accomplished without becoming a total chaos of warring states: there were no internal wars to divide their attention, and they wisely avoided getting involved in other people's conflicts.
2 Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire grew rapidly from about 150 AD when it annexed part of the old Roman republic, until its collapse in 476 when the last emperor died without an heir so the end came quickly after all.
3 Size of the Roman Empire The empire that the Romans created after them was even bigger. It lasted for hundreds of years after they fell, reaching its zenith under the Emperor Aurelian in 275 when it covered almost all of Europe, Africa, and parts of Asia too. But then it started to fall apart and by 395 most of it had collapsed.
4 Number of People who Lived during the Roman Empire Estimates range from 20 to 80 million but most experts say that it was between 30 and 50 million. That's equivalent to between 1/7 and 1/5 of today's world population.
At its peak, the Roman Empire included the following countries and territories: the majority of Europe (England, Wales, Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Austria, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Belgium, Gibraltar, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine), coastal northern Africa (Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Egypt), the Balkans (Albania, Serbia, Macedonia, Macedonia, Macedonia, Macedonia, Macedonia, Macedonia, Macedonia, Macedonia, Macedonië), Asia Minor (Turkey), Syria, Judea. The only countries not part of the empire but subject to its influence were Germany and Japan.
The empire was formed in a series of political marriages and military conquests by Emperor Augustus that transformed his new republic into an autocracy. By the time of his death in AD 14, Augustus had successfully transformed his country from a small republic to an empire that covered much of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. He also greatly expanded its military might with hundreds of thousands of men under arms. His nephew Tiberius took the throne after him, but because he was mentally impaired, Augustus' daughter Julia married her uncle's guardian Caesarion before she died. Thus, Julius Caesar became emperor of Rome.
In AD 68, an army led by General Marcus Antonius Mark Antony and Senator Lucius Aurelius Cotta defeated that nation's emperor, Vitellius, at the Battle of Actium. The next year, all of Rome's former allies declared war on her; only one side won -- the empire.