The outer core of Earth The outer core is the earth's liquid, primarily iron-based layer that sits under the mantle. It is the site of intense heat and pressure, a state called ferroic symmetry. The magnetic field of Earth is generated here.
The inner core is the densest part of Earth's interior, made up mainly of solid iron with some nickel and oxygen. It is the center of the magnetic field, which produces all manner of interesting effects including the geomagnetic field.
Mantle: the thick layer of hot rock that lies between the crust and the core.
Crust: the thin layer of rock that forms our surface; the most visible aspect of Earth's anatomy. Crustal rocks include granite, gneiss, and schist. They are formed by the cooling and contracting of molten material deep within Earth's body.
Mesoshelium: this term comes from the Greek mesos meaning "middle" and osis meaning "type," so it means "middle type." The mesoshelium is the name given to the soft layer of rock that fills the space between two grains of sand or gravel in the beach or riverbank.
The layer that surrounds the inner core is known as the outer core. It is a liquid layer composed of iron and nickel. It's still incredibly hot, with temperatures approaching those of the inner core. The mantle is the Earth's largest portion. It covers almost two-thirds of the planet's surface and is made up of silicate rock, such as granite or marble. The remaining one-third is water.
The outer core is also the most dynamic part of the planet's interior. Changes in the temperature of the mantle cause changes that propagate through the outer core. These changes then affect the inner core and even reach the surface.
Some scientists think that volcanic activity at the mid-mantle depth may be the source of the heat that flows upward toward the crust and converts the outer core into a fluid state. But others believe that the conversion occurs due to tectonic activity near the boundaries between different types of rocks in the mantle.
Scientists have only been able to observe the behavior of the outer core using satellites and other remote-sensing devices. They use magnetic fields and gravity to study the flow of liquid metal within the outer core and the propagation of seismic waves through it.
As we've seen, the outer core is the site of important geological processes. Understanding how these processes occur can help us to understand how the Earth evolved over time.
The Earth's mantle is located above the core and is composed of rock containing silicon, iron, magnesium, aluminum, oxygen, and other minerals. The Earth's surface is predominantly covered with liquid water, and its atmosphere is mostly made up of nitrogen and oxygen, with trace amounts of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases. But at the center of the planet there is a solid sphere called a nucleus that contains metals such as iron, nickel, zinc, copper, calcium, and others.
The mantle consists of two distinct layers: the uppermost layer is called the "crust," and the lower layer is called the "mantle." The crust forms the surface of the planet and is made up of hard rocks such as granite, gneiss, schist, and shale. The crust is thickest near the continents and thinnest over oceans where the pressure from the weight of rock above causes it to crack and form deep fissures called "trenches."
The mantle lies below the crust and is the large hollow space within our planet that makes up more than 99% of its total volume. The mantle is a hot fluid under the force of gravity; it flows toward the middle of the planet where it cools down and becomes viscous. Convection in the mantle creates great heat differences between the equator and the poles, which leads to major differences in composition between the two.
The mantle is a dense, heated layer of semi-solid rock about 2,900 km deep that lies under the crust. The core is located in the heart of the Earth and is approximately twice as dense as the mantle due to its metallic (iron-nickel alloy) rather than stony makeup. The core is the center of the earth's magnetic field and causes the needle of a compass to point north.
Mantle material is less dense than core material so it floats on the core.
Here are some comparisons of mass versus radius for these two layers: Mantle = 4.54 x 1022 kg/km2; Core = 9.45 x 1022 kg/km2.
Massic value-the amount of matter in an object, either weight or volume. Equivalently, mass is the factor by which you raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water from 15 °C to 100 °C.
Density values can be very high, like iron, which is 10 times as massive as oxygen but only slightly larger in diameter, at about 10-15 cm. Or density can be much lower, like water, which is almost 800 times as massive as oxygen but only 0.5 cm across.
Oceans contain more than 99.9% water by mass so they are nearly pure water and have a density between 0.9 and 1.1 g/cm3.
The inner core is the Earth's innermost layer. It's made of iron and nickel as well, but the pressure is so great that it's no longer liquid. The temperatures in the inner core reach roughly 5505 degrees Celsius, which is as hot as the surface of the sun.
The outer core is the thickest layer of the earth's mantle. It forms the body around which the inner core is wrapped. The outer core is also the source of the magnetic field surrounding Earth. It consists mainly of water molecules that are aligned in a similar way to a magnet. This alignment causes the outer core to have a strong dipole magnetic field.
The molten metal inner core is the most dense part of the planet. It's composed mostly of iron with some nickel and silicon mixed in. The core has a radius of 7,474 km. Although less massive than expected, the core accounts for almost 4% of Earth's mass. Its density is about 15,000 kg/m3.
The solid inner core may be divided into two parts: the light, fluid outer core and the heavier inner core. They're both solid bodies that float within the liquid outer core.
Earth's magnetic field comes from its atmosphere and outer core. Since we know how to measure magnetic fields on Earth's surface, scientists can infer that the interior of the planet must be generating a magnetic field too.