France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Portugal were the conference's key actors, controlling the majority of colonial Africa at the time. They were followed by Italy and Spain, which had smaller territories but many more inhabitants.
These five nations controlled about 95 percent of all land under cultivation in sub-Saharan Africa in 1914. Their colonies included nearly a quarter of the world's population.
The importance of these colonies was not only economic but also political - they provided them with sources of food, fuel, and raw materials as well as markets for their manufactured goods.
Many factors contributed to the expansion of Europe's empire including technology, trade, warfare, and exploration. But the movement of people played an important role too. The need for workers made colonialism part of the ongoing process of global migration.
And so the idea of a "white man's burden" was born. The phrase is attributed to British civil servant John Holt, who wrote in 1854 that it was wrong for white Europeans to feel obligated to improve the lives of people of color by educating them or giving them jobs. Instead, he said, they should concentrate on things such as producing wealth for their own countries.
Holt's words reflect the attitude of many Europeans at the time.
The conference's primary dominating powers were France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Portugal. They remapped Africa without taking into account the existing cultural and linguistic boundaries. Africa was partitioned into 50 colonies at the conclusion of the meeting. These colonies were expected to become self-sufficient and pay high tariffs to obtain trade licenses.
These new territories were designed to generate wealth for their home countries by producing raw materials and exporting them. However, many of these colonies failed due to poor management practices and resource conflicts with each other and native inhabitants. Only a few such as Algeria, Nigeria, and South Africa have managed to achieve some level of economic success.
France began the process by declaring its intention to limit its involvement in Africa. It withdrew from Sudan, which led to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire's African department. In addition, French forces defeated the Algerian rebels who had declared themselves independent. This victory secured France's position as the leading power in North Africa.
Other major powers also took part in the conference. The United States agreed to trade with the colonies on a preferential basis. However, it refused to get involved in the political process by not providing troops for occupation duties or vetoing legislation. Russia traded across most of Africa but focused on central and eastern regions that contained vast natural resources.
Britain, France, Germany, Portugal, Spain, and Italy are the major powers involved in contemporary colonization of Africa.
In addition, the indigenous population in North America was subjected to colonialism, with the arrival of Europeans who established colonies that later became independent nations. In South America, the Spanish colonized most of the territory, but French and English colonists also arrived and played a role in the development of the region. In Australia, the first settlers came from Britain and Ireland; the continent had been previously visited by Dutch and Portuguese explorers.
Modern-day Israel was founded in 1948 by individuals from several different European countries. The country is an outlier in colonial Africa because it is not seeking economic gain but rather maintains a Jewish state status. However, some Israelis have moved to South Africa to benefit from its liberal laws regarding citizenship and employment.
Colonization is the act of bringing people from one's own culture or society and moving them to another. This act has been used by many nations throughout history to expand their influence or find new resources. Modern colonization usually involves the establishment of settlements on other lands, but this was not always the case. There have been instances of expansion into existing settlements, but also cases of destruction of existing settlements and relocation of the indigenous population.
Only the big European nations battled for control of Africa. These were Britain, France, and Germany, as well as the smaller powers of Spain, Portugal, and Italy, all of which had very minor holdings in Africa. Britain and France were in the forefront of African imperialism. They began by seeking out and securing trade agreements with the native rulers, then moved on to direct government intervention in the form of military campaigns or colonial administrations.
Africa was seen as a valuable source of material wealth, which could be obtained through trade or conquest. Both Britain and France relied on their large populations to afford them greater economic strength. In addition, they believed that they needed colonies to protect their interests abroad. Finally, they thought that they would be able to influence other countries' policies by keeping them apprised of French and British interests on the continent.
Both countries established fairly sophisticated governments for their colonies, but they also used them as tools to promote the interests of their companies. For example, Britain's East India Company received special trading rights with both the Indian and African markets. Similarly, France's Colonial Office helped secure contracts for French businesses by giving them access to valuable resources or offering exemptions from expensive local products.
France and Britain competed with one another for prestige and power, but both were relatively weak countries. They needed the support of more powerful nations to ensure their survival.
Northern Africa was colonized in the nineteenth century by France, the United Kingdom, Spain, and Italy. While all four countries had strongholds in Northern Africa, France held the majority of the region. The French were responsible for building most of the cities that exist today, including Cairo, Tunis, and Algiers. They also led the way with modern infrastructure, such as roads and schools.
Spain took control of North Africa after defeating the combined forces of the British and French at the Battle of El Alum Rock in 1801. However, this did not last long because two years later, Napoleon invaded Spain and forced it to surrender its North African territories.
It wasn't until 1954 that Italy joined France and Britain in establishing their own territory in Africa when they gained control of Libya. Today, this country is known for its unrest - especially since the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi in 2011. There has been widespread violence between different factions within Libya trying to establish who will be next in charge.
In conclusion, France, Spain, and Italy dominated northern Africa because of their wealth and military strength. These three countries were able to provide resources for themselves by taking advantage of the slave trade with the Americas. In addition, they used their power to influence other countries into allowing them to keep control of certain regions.