Who controlled North Africa in the early 20th century?

Who controlled North Africa in the early 20th century?

Britain, France, Belgium, and Portugal were the colonial powers, with Italy, Spain, and Germany playing minor roles. As the twentieth century began, only two African countries, Ethiopia and Liberia, had autonomous governments; the remainder of the continent was ruled by European governments and corporations....

How did Africa's first government operate? In 1919, the leading nations of Africa met in London to create a common policy for their region. They agreed that the colonies should have substantial self-government and should be allowed to conduct their own affairs so long as they kept up their payments into a common treasury. The arrangement worked reasonably well until World War II when many countries became involved in fighting Nazi Germany and its allies.

After the war, there was no longer any hope of getting money from the former colonies because they did not have enough resources to pay anything. Also, most of them wanted nothing more to do with Europe or the Americans. So the major powers reverted to their old policy of controlling the area through military force. In fact, Britain and France still control about one-third of Africa today.

Do you know how these countries gained their power? From the late 1800s to the mid-1900s, all of them except Ethiopia had territories taken away from them by Europeans. They were given small parcels of land to settle which later became colonies.

Which African countries were still independent by the early 20th century?

As the twentieth century began, only two African countries, Ethiopia and Liberia, had autonomous governments; the remainder of the continent was ruled by European governments and corporations.

Liberia became the first black nation to gain its independence from Europe when it did so on April 4, 1847. A former colony of Great Britain, Liberia was located in North America. Like other former British colonies, such as Canada and India, it was designed as a refuge for freed slaves to start their own businesses and live free of slavery-related restrictions.

In addition to Liberia, Africa's remaining independent nations at this time were Ethiopia and Eritrea. Both countries were located in the southeastern part of the continent near the Middle East and South Asia. They had been part of the Ethiopian Empire until it collapsed in 1889 after 32 years of continuous rule. The empire's last emperor, Yohannes IV, also known as "John I," was an ardent supporter of abolitionism who banned the slave trade within his territory. However, following his death in 1910, slavery was reintroduced in Ethiopia.

Ethiopia's government was dominated by the nobility and was therefore not democratic. In 1913, a young army captain named Emperor Haile Selassie rose up against them with support from Italy and England.

Which colonial power ruled the majority of West Africa?

With the exception of Ethiopia and Liberia, the whole continent was colonized by Europeans. Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, and Portugal were the key colonial powers. Their colonies formed a network across the region with trade routes connecting them with each other and with other parts of the world.

France and England had been rivals since the 16th century when France under Francis I and England under Henry VIII fought three major wars over control of Africa. In 1842, France and England signed a treaty of alliance which led to the creation of the French Empire under Napoleon III. This new empire was eventually defeated in 1871 by the British army at the battle of Zinder. However, because France was still recovering from the devastation of World War II, President de Gaulle decided that it was not worth risking another war with Britain to save an empire that was already gone. So, he ordered the dissolution of the French African empire.

In 1889, King Leopold II of Belgium established "Leopold's Rule" in the Congo Basin area now known as Zaire. Under this rule, anyone who challenged his authority was killed, including members of other tribes or religions. Estimates range from 1 million to 4 million people died during Leopold's reign of terror. His actions are said to have inspired Joseph Conrad's novella "Heart of Darkness".

Who conquered Africa in the 19th century?

By 1900, seven European powers—Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy—had conquered a large portion of Africa. Following the conquest of African decentralized and centralized governments, European powers embarked on the establishment of colonial state structures. These states were often based upon traditional rulers who were given small areas of land to govern.

In 1881, Egypt was incorporated into the British Empire. In 1897, Britain's East Africa territory was united with Uganda to form the British protectorate of Uganda. In 1960, this protectorate became a self-governing colony named Kenya. In 1965, Nigeria gained its independence from Britain. However, some countries in Africa have never been independent nations. They include Algeria, Cameroon, Congo (Brazzaville), Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, and Zaire (formerly known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo).

Africa is huge; therefore, I couldn't cover every battle that took place on it.

Which two European countries established the most colonies in Africa by the end of the 1800s?

France and the United Kingdom France and Britain were the continent's two most powerful colonial powers, dominating two-thirds of the continent before World War I and more than 70 percent thereafter. From the mid-1800s until the early 1900s, Africa experienced the pinnacle of imperial power. In terms of total area occupied, they ranked first and second among all world empires.

France was the first to colonize large areas of Africa, starting with its takeover of Algeria in 1848. The following year it invaded Morocco, and four years later it added Tunisia to its holdings. All of these territories became part of the French Republic in 1848. In 1871, France also gained control of Cameroon from Germany.

In 1852, the British government granted a royal charter to the Royal African Company, which allowed it to rule parts of today's Nigeria, Senegal, and Sierra Leone. In 1856, the company was replaced by the Crown Colony of Liberia, which was founded as an alternative to slavery for those born into poverty or oppression. Although slavery still existed in Liberia, it was not the driving force behind colonization like it was in Brazil or Cuba. Rather, the country's founders envisioned Liberia as a place where blacks could create their own free society.

By the late 1850s, France and Britain were competing intensely for influence in Africa.

About Article Author

Lindsay Mowen

Lindsay Mowen teaches students about the periodic table of elements and how it relates to their lives. She also teaches them about the various properties of each element, as well as how they are used in different types of technology. Lindsay loves to teach because it allows him to share knowledge with others, and help them learn more about the world around them.

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