A century ago, two German chemists, Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch, invented a method for converting nitrogen in the air into fertilizer, which became known as the Haber-Bosch process. This invention has had a profound impact on the world food system. It has reduced the cost of fertilizer and improved its quality so that less soil is needed to grow more food.
Before the Haber-Bosch process, growing crops required much more land than it does today. For example, one kilo (2.2 pounds) of nitrogen requires about 1,500 litres (44 gallons) of atmospheric nitrogen to be converted into ammonia, which is then absorbed by the plants through their roots. Ammonia is very toxic to plants at high concentrations so this process must happen slowly and over a large area.
The Haber-Bosch process changes ammonia into nitrogenous fertilizer, which can then be used by plants. First, hydrogen is added to an ammonium hydroxide solution to produce urea. Next, heat is applied to decompose the urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The resulting gas is mostly nitrogen with some oxygen and traces of other gases such as argon.
Fertilizer companies have developed many different types of nitrogen-based products for different uses.
Erik Rotheim's aerosol spray/Inventions
Erik Rotheim Rotheim (1898–1938) created the first aerosol spray container and valve capable of holding and dispensing fluids. He received a patent for his technique in Norway in 1927 and in the United States in 1931.
Heliography photography Nicephore Niepce's Inventions
Joseph Nicephore Niepce was one of the most important figures in the invention of photography. Born in France in 1765, Niepce was an amateur scientist, inventor, and artist. In 1807, together with his brother, Claude, he invented the world's first internal combustion engine, which they called the pyreolophore.
Tilghman Benjamin Chew Abrasive Blasting/Inventors
Benjamin Chew Tilghman (1821–1901) was a soldier and inventor from the United States. He is mainly recognized for inventing the sandblasting method.
Fertilisers are mixtures of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium substances that are used to encourage plant development. Fertilisers that provide all three elements are commonly referred to as NPK fertilisers, after the chemical symbols for these three elements. Nitrogen is important for healthy plants because it contributes to protein production and helps seeds grow into strong plants. Phosphorus is needed for healthy growth and reproduction. Potassium helps control soil pH and is essential for healthy plants.
So, we can see that fertilisers are necessary for successful crop production. Without them, there would be no food for us to eat. Fertilisers help plants develop their full potential by supplying them with the elements they need to thrive. They play an important role in sustaining life on earth. There are two main types of fertilisers: organic and inorganic.
Organic fertilisers are natural products derived from animals or bacteria. They contain nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium and are applied to land as a liquid or powder. Organic fertilisers are safe for soil health and do not cause any harmful effects to humans or animals who come in contact with them. However, they can't replace synthetic fertilisers because they don't remain in the soil long enough to benefit crops greatly.
Inorganic fertilisers are made by combining natural or manufactured minerals or rock powders with water to form a paste.
Although Scottish botanist Robert Brown (1773–1858) discovered the nucleus of a cell, he is arguably best remembered for finding the random movement of minute particles in a surrounding solution, which became known as "Brownian motion." He also created new plant groupings based on morphological and chemical similarities.
In 1799, while working at the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh, Brown made one of the first observations of the structure of cells when he saw that the fibers within plants are connected to each other with pith, which is hollow fiber tissue. He realized that this must be the case because otherwise the wood would be destroyed by water flowing through it. This discovery led him to study plant anatomy more closely, including the structure inside cells. In 1831, using a microscope built by Thomas Young, he was able to see the nucleus at the center of every cell. He named the structure "nucleus" after the Greek word for nut.
Founders: Hatzerim Simcha Blass Netafim
The website, which is chock-full of interviews, articles, historical images, and more, traces Netafim's roots back to the work of inventor Simcha Blass in the Negev and the early versions of drip irrigation devices built at Kibbutz Hatzerim in the mid-1960s.
Both the telescope and the microscope were invented in the Netherlands. The Dutch Golden Age (the 17th century) was a pivotal period in the history of the Netherlands. It's no surprise that significant innovations occurred during this time period. The telescope and the microscope were two of them.
The telescope was invented by Galileo Galilei in Italy in 1609. It was a major breakthrough at the time because it was the first device known to magnify objects on Earth. Prior to this invention, scientists believed that objects larger than the eye could only be seen by God.
Galileo used glass lenses to create telescopes, which he mounted inside wooden frames for stability and portability. He showed how these instruments could be used to view stars, planets, and the Moon. In 1610, he published his findings on Jupiter, Mars, and the Sun in a book called Sidereus Nuncius ("Starry Messenger").
In 1622, another Italian scientist named Anton Van Leeuwenhoek built a more advanced telescope than anything else available at the time. Instead of using glass lenses, he used clean slices of polished metal sheets attached to wood handles. This instrument allowed people to see things with clarity and detail never before possible. Van Leeuwenhoek also made some important discoveries about bacteria. He realized that everything is made of tiny particles called atoms and that these atoms are all different even though they belong to the same species.