Representatives are delegated to take part in DM. Work and task design, work circumstances, methods, and capital allocation are all parts of this. Different levels of participation result in different consequences. For example, senior management involvement in decisions will generally lead to more innovative solutions.
Decision making is also used as a broad term that includes other types of activity such as planning, scheduling, and controlling. These elements also form parts of any DM process but they are included here for clarity purposes.
People have different roles in decision making. Some people make decisions, while others support those who make decisions. Roles can be defined by position (for example, president or manager), function (for example, sales or marketing), or authority (for example, a voting member). Individual contributors do not have a role of their own; rather, they contribute to the discussion and possible decisions that are made by others. Representatives may have different titles such as managers, directors, executives, advisors, consultants, etc. They may also have different degrees of authority depending on the organization's structure. For example, employees at one level might be able to approve projects while higher-level employees could make final decisions.
Organizations usually have different structures for different functions or departments. This means that not everyone involved in decision making will be a representative of an organization.
The distinction between direct and indirect acts is the location of the locus of control. "A direct option involves simply a choice on your side; an indirect alternative requires you to persuade others to make actions that would benefit you," Browne writes in the book. Direct options are easy to implement; they just need to be done. Indirect options require more work.
Direct options are those where you take action yourself to achieve a result. For example, if you want someone to like you, you could send them a message telling them so. This is a direct option because you are responsible for making sure that it works out. You might not get results right away, but as time goes by and they still like you, you will know that you made a good decision.
Indirect options are things like changing something about your personality or behavior that people may or may not decide helps them come to like you. These require more work because you have to keep acting this way over time. But eventually they will see that it pays off and like you for it.
Here are some other examples of direct and indirect options:
A direct option is taking action yourself. An indirect option is trying to get others to do what needs to be done.
Direct options are easy to implement; they just need to be done.
Figurehead, leader, and liason are examples of interpersonal roles. Mentor, disseminator, and spokesperson are examples of informational roles. Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator are examples of decisional jobs. It is critical to remember that no single manager can be everything to everyone all of the time. Managers must choose among their many responsibilities.
Decision making is the process of selecting from among several options or courses of action to obtain a desired outcome. Decisions may involve risk assessment: weighing possible outcomes to identify which one has the greatest likelihood of occurring. They may also require taking responsibility for outcomes: being aware of potential consequences and acting accordingly. Decision making is necessary in every aspect of life including work. Making decisions under pressure without considering all relevant information may result in making poor choices. However even when given sufficient time and space to consider alternatives, some people still find it difficult to make up their minds. That's where managers come in. A manager makes decisions on behalf of others by interpreting information provided by them and identifying preferred courses of action. The type of decision that needs to be made depends on the role that manager fills.
Interpersonal roles require managers to communicate with others about organizational issues, seek out opinions on these matters, and make decisions based on the information received. These types of jobs include figurehead, leader, and liaison. Figureheads are individuals who are recognized by their organization for their public appearance or reputation but do not have official titles or authority.