Haane Te Rauawa Manahi DCM (28 September 1913–29 March 1986) was a New Zealand soldier of Te Arawa and Ngati Raukawa origin who fought in the Maori Battalion during World War II. After the war, he became known as one of the King Country's best hunters and fishers of eels.
He was born on 28 September 1913 in Waikato, New Zealand, the son of Hone and Mahina (née Pene) Manahi. The family moved to Tokaanu when Haane was young. He had eight siblings: three brothers and five sisters. His father died when he was only nine years old, and his mother then sent him to live with an uncle in Turangi so that she could make money to send him to school.
When Haane was 14 years old, he returned to Tokaanu to take over the family business. Two years later, at age 16, he went to Taranaki to work for another uncle. Here he met her husband John Aorangi Taylor, who was working as a carpenter. They married on 2 February 1934 at St Peter's Church in Opunake. They had two children together: a daughter, Jeanette, and a son, Paul.
In 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, Manahi joined the New Zealand Army.
|Haane Manahi DCM|
|Battles/wars||Second World War Battle of Greece Battle of Crete Western Desert campaign Tunisia campaign|
|Awards||Distinguished Conduct Medal|
Mwene Matapa (Shona: "Ravager of the Lands") was the title used by a dynasty of rulers governing a southeast African kingdom between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers, in what is now Zimbabwe and Mozambique, from the 14th to the 17th century. His reign is considered a golden age for much of southern Africa.
He was the son of Ndlela n'gugupha, who reigned as king of an area then known as Mutapa until he was overthrown by his brother Mzilikazi. After several years in exile, Mzilikazi returned to the throne but did not live up to expectations and was soon overthrown by another brother, Makoma. The new ruler called himself Shaka Zulu and began a systematic campaign of destruction that is estimated to have killed approximately 200,000 people. He also established royal schools throughout his realm so that his children would not be deprived of an education.
During King Shaka's lifetime, many kingdoms were founded or restored, most notably those of the Xhosa, Tlokwa, and Basuto. However, only the Kingdom of Mutapa survived his death in 1828. By this time, it had become too small to be important politically but it continued to exist as a cultural center until 1865, when it was absorbed into the British colony of Cape Colony.
During World War II (1939–45), the United States opened its Central Pacific Campaign against Japan by taking the highly defended, Japanese-held island of Betio in the Tarawa Atoll in the Gilbert Islands in the Battle of Tarawa (November 20–23, 1943). The battle was a major American victory that proved to be a crucial step toward defeating Japan.
Tarawa is one of several islands forming the atoll. It is an elongated, palm-tree lined coral reef that reaches a height of about 70 feet (21 meters). The landing area is about two miles (3 km) long and covers nearly 300 acres (120 hectares).
The battle began with a strong naval bombardment that lasted for more than three hours. This was followed by a ground assault led by members of the 4th Marine Division. The Americans captured most of the island by nightfall on the first day. However, they were forced to retreat after being attacked by Japanese soldiers equipped with artillery and armor. The U.S. casualties were high; over 1,000 men were killed or missing. Japanese losses are estimated at about 700 people.
Since it was held in November when there was no fighting season, it had no strategic value.
From 1942 through 1945, the Navajo Code Talkers took part in every attack undertaken by the US Marines in the Pacific, including Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Peleliu, and Iwo Jima. The Code Talkers sent communications through telephone and radio in their own tongue, using a code that the Japanese never cracked. They received no credit for this work; instead, they were treated as slaves by the Marines and ordered to provide water at gunpoint. Many of them died from heatstroke or other illnesses they acquired while serving in combat zones. After the war was over, however, President Harry S. Truman issued a proclamation honoring the Code Talkers and awarding them $10,000 each.
Today, the descendants of the original Code Talkers are still among us. Their stories have been passed down through four generations of Navajos; these tales are now told by their children and grandchildren. There are currently about 150 living Code Talkers, most of whom are over 80 years old. Some remain in nursing homes and others live on reservations but all of them share one thing in common: they are survivors of the Marine Corps' most secret organization. The fact that the Code Talkers kept this service a secret until after the war was over shows how much they believed the effort was unnecessary and shameful. However, their commanders knew exactly what role they could play in battle and used this knowledge to help save thousands of American lives.
Korechika Anami (A Nan Wei Ji Anami Korechika, 21 February 1887–15 August 1945) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during WWII and served as War Minister at the time of Japan's capitulation. He was posthumously awarded the title of war criminal.
Anami was born in what is now part of the city of Shizuoka in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. His father was a samurai from a wealthy farming family who had become an official in the government of the short-lived Tokugawa shogunate. Anami graduated from the 38th class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1908 and was assigned to the IJA 14th Infantry Regiment. In January 1914 he was promoted to be commander of the IJA 4th Infantry Regiment. In June of that year he was transferred back to staff work at the army headquarters and in September he was appointed chief of staff for the IJA 10th Division. In December he became acting commander of the division when his boss, Gen Suzuki Keisuke, was hospitalized with tuberculosis. The following March, Anami was given permanent command of the division. In July 1916 he was promoted to the rank of major general and given command of an infantry brigade. In November 1917 he was given another promotion, this time to the rank of lieutenant general, and made commander of the IJA 31st Division.