Who was the king of Scotland before Robert the Bruce?

Who was the king of Scotland before Robert the Bruce?

Though up to 14 persons claimed the throne of Scotland, the two most substantial claims were made by John Balliol, a nobleman of likely Scottish and Anglo-Norman ancestors, and Robert the Bruce. Who was Robert the Bruce, and why was he known as such? Simple. He was the son of King Edward I of England and his wife Lady Margaret Beaufort, himself the childless daughter of an English lord. When Robert's father died in 1329, many people believed that the young prince should have been named heir to the English throne instead of his brother or sister. However, this did not happen because it was decided first to see how well Edward II did as king, and when he proved unworthy, his brother William, the Duke of Gloucester, was appointed instead.

When William died in 1337, the crown passed to their youngest brother Richard, who became Richard II. He was only nine years old at the time, so his mother acted as regent until he came of age four years later. During this time, tensions between England and France grew greater, which led to war breaking out in 1337. By the time Richard reached the age of reason, he had a mental illness called psychomotor epilepsy, which caused him to go into seizures during his reign. As a result, there was no one able to rule effectively while he was alive.

What year was Robert the Bruce?

Robert the Bruce, original name Robert VIII de Bruce, also known as Robert I, (born July 11, 1274--died June 7, 1329, Cardross, Dumbartonshire, Scotland), king of Scotland (1306-29), who liberated Scotland from English rule, winning the decisive Battle of Bannockburn (1314) and confirming Scottish independence in 1314. His reign marked the beginning of the period known as the "Age of Independence".

He was born the only son of John de Bruce and Marjorie Mortimer, and was named after his grandfather Edward II of England. When he came of age, he took over the government of Scotland from his father. He married Helen, daughter of William III, duke of Brabant and Margaret, queen of Denmark, in 1308. The marriage produced no children but the couple had two daughters by a previous marriage. In 1320, King Robert went to war against England, seeking to regain lands lost during the reign of his father. Although he was victorious at the Battle of Old Byland (also called the Battle of Halidon Hill) that year, illness forced him to return to Scotland, where he died shortly afterward. He is buried in St. Mary's Church in Cardross.

In 1328, his brother David II succeeded him to the thrones of both Scotland and Norway.

Was Robert the Bruce hunted?

After being beaten in his first two fights against the English, Robert the Bruce fled and became a fugitive, pursued by both Comyn's allies and the English. Bruce was King of Scotland from 1306 until 1329. He fought several successful battles against the English, earning him recognition as one of Europe's great military leaders.

During his reign, he tried to restore the power of the monarchy at the expense of the House of Comyn, the family that had ruled Scotland since 1163. He imprisoned and executed members of the Comyn family, including his own brother Edward. When the last Comyn died in 1328, the throne passed to the Bruce's only child, a daughter named Mary.

Bruce did not live long after this event. In 1330, he led an army against the English at the Battle of Bannockburn, which restored the independence of Scotland. The battle is regarded as one of the most important in European history. It has been called "the true beginning of the British Empire," because it freed Scotland from England and created a new nation that united the two countries.

After the victory at Bannockburn, Bruce married his son's widow, Mary, so that she would have an heir to carry on his work. However, she died shortly after the wedding, and Bruce then married another woman.

About Article Author

Dennis Armstrong

Dennis Armstrong is a teacher who loves to read and write about science. He has published articles about the stars and the planets in our solar system, as well as the physics of locomotion on other planets.

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