In this communalization of history, the emperor Aurangzeb (1618–1707) has the unfortunate distinction of being blamed for the demise of the magnificent Mughal empire due to his intolerance, a result of his puritanical interpretation of religion. While it is true that many temples were destroyed during his reign, this act was also committed by previous rulers such as Humayun (1556–1600). Moreover, Aurangzeb did not even visit most of the provinces under his control, so he cannot be said to have destroyed the empire through neglect.
As far as religious tolerance is concerned, there was hardly anything remarkable about Aurangzeb's policy toward other religions. He allowed Muslims of other sects and Hindus to live in peace within their own communities but demanded that they convert to Islam or face death. When they refused, then persecution began. During his rule, many intellectuals and scientists from various religions came together and created a comprehensive medical system that proved very effective against plague and other diseases. This shows that the Mughals were not anti-science, rather they were anti-intellectualism. They believed that science was something that needed to be controlled by the state because it could be used to make weapons of mass destruction or to provide insight into how to build rockets!
Aurangzeb was born into a Muslim family but after becoming king embraced Islam under pressure from the ulama (religious scholars).
Aurangzeb reigned as Emperor of India from 1658 until 1707. He was the final great Mughal monarch. The Mughal Empire reached its zenith under him, while his actions contributed to its demise.
Aurangzeb was born on April 23, 1618 in Delhi, the only son of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and his third wife, Nur Jahan. When he was young, his father built him a new capital named "Dwarka". But after the death of his father in 1666, the young prince became involved in a power struggle with his half-brothers. In order to secure his position, he had his own brother executed.
In 1672, Aurangzeb married his niece Salima Sultan, the daughter of his sister. Two years later, he forced his uncle Hamiduddin to enter into an agreement stating that neither of them would marry again without the other's consent. This agreement ended up destroying both their marriages.
In 1676, Aurangzeb married his second wife, Jemimah Sultan. Like his first marriage, this one too was political motivated. His first wife had many children by several different men. To ensure that she didn't have any more children, Aurangzeb married her after she gave birth to her last child.
Despite his efforts to create a tolerable kingdom, Akbar's pluralist ideal for Mughal society was short-lived. His great-grandson, Aurangzeb, who also served as a Mughal emperor, would put a stop to religious tolerance by reimposing the jizya and demolishing Hindu temples.
Akbar's efforts in this regard are often overlooked in history books, which tend to focus on his many accomplishments in warfare, politics, science, and technology. However, despite the fact that he fought dozens of wars and ruled over an enormous empire, none of it was achieved at the expense of other religions. On the contrary, he tried hard to promote harmony between Muslims, Hindus, and Christians.
In fact, it is believed that Akbar wanted to remove any obstacles that might cause conflict or intolerance between different religions. So, he allowed Hindu priests into his court and even married a princess from the Indian royal family.
Furthermore, during his reign, India experienced its most tolerant time in terms of religion. There were no attempts made by Akbar to convert anyone to Islam; rather, he wanted everyone to respect their own beliefs while also being open to others'.
This aspect of Akbar's policy is not well known by the public but it can be found written about in some histories of philosophy.
Aurangzeb's successors were weak and fell victim to the intrigues and plots of the faction-ridden nobility. They were ineffective generals who were unable of putting down revolts. Because of the lack of a strong king, an effective bureaucracy, and a capable army, the Mughal Empire was feeble. It collapsed in 1707 when its last ruler, Ahmed I, died without an heir.
In order to maintain their power, the rulers appointed their own sons as heirs, which meant that the empire would be divided up among them. This practice caused many problems in the future because most of these children were very young when they became emperors/empresses. Some weren't even born yet!
So, the empire was split up into several smaller states, and each one of these states had their own emperor or empress. This state of affairs continued for almost 20 years until the accession of Ahmad Shah Durrani, the first of the modern-day Afghan kings. He invaded India with an army of 50,000 men and defeated the last Mughal emperor, Ahmed Shah Abdal, at the Battle of Karnal in 1748. The next year, he captured Delhi and made it his capital city. Thus, the Mughal Empire came to an end.
Now you know how the Mughal empire declined after Aurangzeb!
Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb died in a Mughal court. The news of his death was announced by his son, who became the new emperor - Shah Jahan.
The Third Battle of Panipat was one of the major battles that took place during the wars between the Indian subcontinent's two most powerful empires: the Mughal Empire and the Maratha Empire. The battle was fought on 7 November 1659 between the forces of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb and those of the Maratha king Shivaji. It resulted in a Mughal victory.
Aurangzeb was an Islamic ruler who founded the Mughal dynasty. He ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly 30 years, until his death in 1707. During his reign, he waged many campaigns against other regional rulers to make India a single empire under Islam. These wars lasted for many years and cost millions of lives.
Shivaji was a Hindu warrior who led an army of 10,000 soldiers against the Mughals. He defeated their armies several times and captured many cities, but he could not defeat the Mughals entirely and had to escape from India after 14 years of fighting.
Aurangzeb Alamgir, the Mughal emperor, was one of the most despised figures in Indian history. He is widely hated as a religious zealot who attempted to ruthlessly persecute Hindus, and some even blame him for igniting wars that would end in the establishment of a distinct Muslim state in South Asia.
Aurangzeb was born on April 5, 1618 in Delhi, the only son of Emperor Jehangir and his second wife, Nur Jahan. His father died when he was just six years old and was raised by his mother until he came of age. She then married her former husband's brother, Shah Jahan, as arranged by their new family to have an ally against Aurangzeb. However, this marriage turned out to be very unhappy and resulted in three more children being born to them - Mahamana Abul Hasan Ali Khan, Muhammad Azam Jahani and Fatimah Zahra.
As soon as he reached adulthood, Aurangzeb tried to persuade his mother to divorce her husband but she refused so he went to Persia to ask the Shah if he could marry Nur Jahan but the Shah refused too. Enraged by this, Aurangzeb returned home and ordered his mother arrested. The next day, she was executed by strangulation in front of her children.
Aurangzeb assumed power by having his uncle, Dara Shikoh, killed.