Egypt gained independence in 1922. The British influence on the country, however, remained quite strong. Above all, Britain and France retained control of the Suez Canal. This irritated Egyptians, who believed that such a great treasure in their own nation should be theirs. In addition, the treaty with England allowed for military assistance to be given by either party to the other.
The war broke out in 1939, but it was not until 1956 that Britain finally handed over control of the canal. By then, the price they had to pay was very high - the loss of their last colonial possession.
France gave Egypt its independence in 1953. However, the treaty between France and Egypt required that both countries remain allied during times of peace, so this didn't change anything for Egypt at first. It was not until 1959 that Egypt joined the United Nations as an independent state.
There have been disputes between Egypt and Israel since Egypt became independent in 1952. In 1967, after Israel invaded the Sinai Peninsula and East Jerusalem, Egypt closed off the canal. This caused serious problems for Israel's economy, since most of its food came from America. In response, Israel attacked Egypt and took back the land that had been occupied during the war.
In 1973, Egypt's new president, Anwar el-Sadat, signed a peace treaty with Israel. This marked the end of the Arab-Israeli War.
The British Army remained in Egypt during the First World War and afterward to secure the Suez Canal. Following Egypt's independence in 1922, the UK and Egypt signed a deal in 1936 under which British troops would remain to guard the canal and train the Egyptian army. This agreement was revised in 1945 when it was decided that British soldiers should be withdrawn from Egypt instead.
During the Second World War, Egypt again became involved with Britain. The country was important to Churchill because of its supply of wheat and oil, and also because it was near the Middle East, where Britain needed allies. In 1940, after Hitler invaded France and Belgium, Churchill told his war cabinet that he did not want any British troops sent to fight on continental Europe's battlefields because they wouldn't be able to return home safely. However, he did say that some could be sent to help defend Egypt if this was deemed necessary by Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
In fact, in February 1941, just over one year after this statement was made, the first British troops arrived in Egypt. They went to support the French against Hitler and were based in Syria but came under British command. These are called "forgotten warriors" because they didn't come from Britain but rather from countries such as India, Pakistan, and South Africa that had colonies there. In total, about 20,000 soldiers from these countries fought in North Africa and Europe as part of Allied forces.
The British government offered to recognize Egypt as an independent sovereign state, but with the British government retaining the following powers: security of the British Empire's communications in Egypt; defense of Egypt against foreign aggression; and protection of foreign interests in Egypt and Sudan. In return, Egypt would have to accept permanent European control over its customs service, central bank, and military.
When Egypt's president, Hosni Mubarak, refused to step down after three decades in power, protests broke out across Egypt on January 25, 2011. The anti-government protests were led by young people who wanted freedom, democracy, and reform - ideas that are familiar to people everywhere. But unlike many other countries where young people lead the way toward more free societies, Egypt's long-standing political system was not about to change without a major shock.
For most Egyptians, change came when protesters took to the streets and demanded an end to President Mubarak's rule. After months of demonstrations, a revolutionary council was formed to run the country while new elections were planned. When President Mubarak finally stepped down on February 11, 2011, it was clear that he had lost his grip on power.
In fact, the revolution that began in Egypt has spread to other countries in the region, including Jordan, Libya, and Yemen. All of these countries have now seen pro-democracy movements succeed where others have failed.
Egypt's colonial power was Britain. Because Egypt's government was in debt to European countries, Britain took over the administration. The goal was to get money to pay off the debt.
In 1882, Britain and France signed a treaty giving Britain control of certain parts of Africa. This agreement created the world's first modern empire. It also caused problems for Egyptians because they were now governed by foreigners. In 1914, Britain and Turkey signed a treaty that gave Britain control of Cyprus. Again, this was part of an effort by Britain to build an empire.
The Egyptian monarchy was overthrown in 1952 during the country's revolution. And so the British colony came to an end.