Why did NASA stop making space shuttles?

Why did NASA stop making space shuttles?

The shuttle was proven to be a high-risk, experimental spacecraft, something most astronauts had always suspected. The study that followed showed severe flaws in NASA's safety culture. Nonetheless, the space agency took its lumps and made the necessary improvements to get the shuttle back in the air. But when it came time to build a new vehicle, Congress banned federal funding of human spaceflight.

The shuttle was retired in 2011. There are now only four vehicles capable of flying humans into orbit: the Russian Soyuz and Chinese Shenzhou capsules, which are operated by Russia and China respectively, and the U.S.-built Apollo capsule used by NASA during the 1960s and 1970s.

Shuttles were large vehicles with several major components that were highly toxic if not handled properly. They also carried out too many missions for their cost effectiveness. The retirement of the shuttle has left the International Space Station (ISS) without any means of reentry survival for crew members or cargo.

Shuttle crews were made up of seven people, including a commander, pilot, mission specialist, science technician, psychosocial counselor, and janitor. Each day, they would fly around the world five times on a training mission called a sortie. On actual flights to and from space, they would make six to nine orbits before returning to Earth.

Why was the Space Shuttle a failure?

Fundamentally, it fell short of its aim of lowering the cost of space access. NASA financial constraints caused by the chronically high NASA Space Shuttle program costs have resulted in the elimination of NASA human space flight beyond low earth orbit since Apollo and a significant reduction in the employment of unmanned probes. The agency has not developed any other vehicle that could carry out missions to other planets.

The Space Shuttle was conceived as a replacement for the Apollo Program's Saturn V rocket and Space Shuttles would be able to deliver larger crews and heavier loads into orbit for less money than the Apollo spacecraft did. However, the Shuttle was not entirely free of problems. It was found to be too dangerous to operate during wind conditions that would cause it to lose control and crash. Additionally, there were several accidents with the Shuttle when operators did not follow instructions about where to point its tail fins. These incidents caused five deaths.

Shuttle development began under the Nixon administration but funding was cut off after only three flights had been completed because of concerns over the risk involved in putting humans into orbit. President Ford then cancelled all further Shuttle flights despite Congress voting to continue funding their development. President Carter revived discussion of returning to the Moon but this plan was rejected by Congress which voted down budget proposals for further Shuttle flights. In 1985, President Reagan announced a new goal of sending people to Mars but again this plan came up against political obstacles.

Was the space shuttle program a success?

NASA's Space Shuttle program was criticized for failing to meet its claimed cost and utility targets, as well as for design, financial, management, and safety difficulties. The program also failed to produce any operational re-entry vehicles that could be used on future manned missions.

However, the program did lead to significant advances in technology, particularly with regard to human survival in space. It also demonstrated that even a highly complex system can be built efficiently using small teams working in close cooperation with industry. Finally, it showed that even with billions of dollars invested, there are no guarantees of success when trying to send humans into orbit.

The Space Shuttle Program was designed to take equipment to space to conduct scientific experiments or collect data for NASA projects. It consisted of three parts: the Orbiter, which was assembled from sections produced by Lockheed Martin and Boeing; the Launch Complexes at Kennedy Space Center and Vandenberg Air Force Base; and the Ground Support Equipment needed for takeoff and landing.

The goal was to have the Shuttle reach orbit twice daily, carrying out missions of up to nine hours' duration. It proved capable of operating in orbit for much longer periods of time, giving scientists opportunities to perform valuable research investigations.

What were the negatives of the flying shuttle?

The Flying Shuttle's Disadvantages Furthermore, the shuttle might fly out of the machine at high speeds, and workplaces where flying shuttles were utilized were dangerous places, with incidents such as eye damage. The flying shuttle was eventually superseded by machines that injected the weft in different ways. In 1872, John Ericsson developed an injector for use on his steam engine that operated on a similar principle to the flying shuttle. This injector is now used on most modern looms.

In 1877, Joseph Dixon developed an injector for use on his electric weaving machine that also used a spring-loaded arm to shoot the weft into the warps. This injector is still in use today. However, it must be mounted above the deck of the loom, which can be difficult if the weaver needs to stand up while working.

In 1883, Samuel Holmes developed an injector for use on his self-feeding loom that fed the weft from a pile on one side of the loom to an empty pile on the other side. This injector is still in use today in some Asian countries where it is known as a "half-timber" loom because the feeding mechanism looks like two sets of interlocking timbers.

The self-feeding loom was a major advance over the hand-fed system because it meant that workers could operate the loom even if they were not weavers, only operators.

About Article Author

Sandra Henley

Sandra Henley is a teacher, writer and editor. She has a degree in English and Creative Writing from Yale University and a teaching certificate from Harvard Divinity School.

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