Because the moon has no atmosphere, it cannot trap heat or insulate the surface. In around 27 days, the moon spins on its axis. Our moon clearly does not have weather as we have on Earth. It is always cold and dry because it is always the same side facing away from Earth.
The only place that might have some weather on the moon would be at the lunar poles. But the moon's polar regions are completely covered by ice. As soon as you go beyond about 90 degrees north or south, the ice melts into lava that flows down these dark areas of the moon called maria. The maria used to be thought to be ancient dried up lakes, but now we know they are actually volcanic vents that formed when parts of the moon collapsed under their own weight.
The moon has a strong gravitational field, so any water that gets trapped in this space should stay there for all time. But when the moon was forming, it must have had an ocean of liquid hydrogen and oxygen underneath its crust. When the earth collided with the moon, part of this ocean was forced up into the air and became the moon's atmosphere. The remaining material solidified into rocks that remain today.
If there were weather on the moon, it would most likely be clouds, because water is needed to make clouds.
Temperatures on the moon range from scorching hot to freezing cold depending on where the sun shines. When the sun goes down, temperatures can drop to minus 280 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 173 C). But because of radioactive energy produced by the earth's core, the moon never experiences full darkness. Even when the moon is hidden behind clouds or at the end of its monthly cycle, some sunlight reaches it from the sunward side.
The only place on Earth that is equally far from the sun in all directions is the center of a polar ice cap. Because there are no seasons at the poles, they experience constant daylight and continuous night. The coldest location on Earth is the Russian Vostok Station, which is buried deep under ice. It is so cold that any moisture in the air will freeze into crystals that sparkle like snow under artificial light.
At the South Pole, nighttime is as dark as daytime, because the only rays of sunlight that reach it come from the south, above the horizon. At the North Pole, however, nighttime is not as dark as midday because there is also light from the north, below the horizon. The amount of light below the horizon varies throughout the year because the sun is always located at different distances from the horizon.
During the day, temperatures on the moon reach over 100 degrees Celsius. The lunar surface becomes extremely chilly at night, reaching minus 173 degrees Celsius. This broad range is due to the moon's lack of an atmosphere to hold in heat at night or keep the surface from becoming excessively hot during the day.
The coldest part of the moon is called the lunar polar ice cap. It covers most of northern lunar landmasses and is made up of frozen water vapor that has clumped together into small crystals. The ice cap lies below 30 miles of earth's atmosphere so it is protected from direct sunlight. But the solar wind blows away a thin layer of the ozone above it which allows radiation from the sun to hit the lunar surface. This radiation causes the ice cap to evaporate, which explains why it changes shape over time.
The lunar day is about 24 hours and 56 minutes, which differs slightly from Earth's day because of its own rotation. So the moon's temperature varies throughout this period. The hottest parts of the moon are around the equator, where the sun is directly overhead for half of each day and under the horizon for the other half. The coldest parts are near the poles where the sun is either fully risen or fully set every day.
Lunar exploration by both astronauts and scientists has shown that there is water beneath the moon's crust.
The only method for the Moon's surface to lose heat to space is through radiating it. This is due to the fact that the dust and pebbles on its surface cannot retain heat for long. Because the surface is a poor conductor of heat, heat does not pass through it from the hot day side to the chilly night side.
The Moon has two sides: the lit side which gets sunlight and the dark side which faces away from Earth...which doesn't get any light from the Sun at all.
Why don't volcanoes keep the Moon warm? The Moon isn't actually warm - it's always been about -400 degrees F (about 230 degrees C). Volcanoes often emit gases that are very good conductors of heat, such as sulfur dioxide or carbon dioxide, but the Moon lacks any kind of volcanic activity.
The Moon does have some internal sources of heat, but they're too small to matter for practical purposes. The core of the Moon is made up of iron with some nickel and platinum added in because everything worth adding to gold is worth adding to iron, even though it makes it heavier. This material is extremely dense - almost twice as dense as iron - which means that it takes an incredibly large amount of energy to move anything around inside the Moon. Even if we gave it all our power, we wouldn't be able to move the core point one meter.
The moon has no weather since weather is formed by the interplay of air, water, and sunlight. As a result, the moon has no weathering. However, it does experience some minor effects of gravity and radiation from space that cause tiny particles to be pulled off its surface.
The moon's atmosphere was lost when the meteorite impact created a large hole in its surface. The shock wave from this impact also swept away any existing lunar soil high up on the mountain sides. So, the moon today is completely void of any atmosphere or organic material.
However, because it lacks an atmosphere, the moon does not have a strong magnetic field to protect it from the solar wind, which is a stream of charged particles from the sun flowing out into space. Over time, this could destroy or at least greatly erode its surface.
Also, because there is no natural source of energy to sustain any life, the moon would have to rely entirely on the sun for light and heat, which over time could also damage or destroy any exposed surfaces that face away from the sun.
Finally, because there is no air to carry sound waves, the moon cannot hear Earth's earthquakes or thunderstorms, which could have major impacts if they were occurring with any frequency.