Gold is a metal—a metallic lattice as a material. As a result of these strong metallic connections, most metals are solids at ambient temperature, with the exception of mercury, due to their high melting point. Gold has a relatively low melting point (1916 °C) so it becomes a liquid at standard pressure. However, because it is so dense, only a small amount is needed to fill a space.
Silver has a lower melting point than gold and therefore is also a liquid at normal temperatures. But because its density is less than gold's, a larger quantity is needed to fill a space in silver than gold. This means that less heat is required to melt silver than gold.
Bismuth has a higher melting point than either gold or silver. As a result, only a small amount of bismuth is used as a filler in plastic products because it cannot be melted without damaging the product. When heated above its melting point, however, bismuth will become a liquid.
Lead has the lowest melting point of all the metals we'll discuss here. It can be melted at room temperature. But because it is so heavy, only a small amount is needed to fill a space in lead products. Above its melting point, lead becomes a liquid.
Gold is a solid metal at ambient temperature. While it is an extremely soft metal that can be readily bent, it must be heated to over 2000 °F. (1093 °C) before it will melt.
At this temperature, it becomes a fluid metal with some characteristics similar to water. Specifically, it is still a good conductor of heat and electricity. In fact, it is the most conductive element in the universe after hydrogen gas.
However, unlike water which forms crystals when it's cooled down, solid gold remains unchanged even if it is cooled down to 100 degrees Fahrenheit (or less). It only melts at temperatures higher than 2000 degrees Fahrenheit (1093 degrees Celsius).
Theoretically, you could cool gold down as low as -400 degrees Fahrenheit (or more), but the amount of energy required to do so would be impossible without adding external sources such as electric power or chemical fuels.
In practice, pure gold is too expensive for any practical application except as an investment asset. However, gold alloys are used throughout industry for their unique properties. They are often stronger and more resistant to corrosion than other materials used in their place.
Pure gold is also used by scientists in their experiments because it does not react with other elements except silver.
Gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element in chemistry. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and, under normal conditions, is solid. Less usually, it may be found in minerals as gold compounds, frequently with tellurium (gold tellurides). Gold has been used for making jewelry, dental work, and other ornaments since ancient times. Modern industrial uses include use in coinage and bullion.
In chemistry, gold is the most common form of the element, but it can also exist in its metallic form. Elemental gold is hard and white alkaline metal with a density of 19.32 grams per cubic centimeter. Its boiling point is 1,414 degrees Celsius (2,562 degrees Fahrenheit), and its melting point is 1,543 degrees Celsius (2,543 degrees Fahrenheit).
Under normal conditions, gold is very stable, but it can be oxidized by air, water, or acids. When this occurs, it loses its color and becomes less dense than pure gold. Only gold that has not been altered in any way contains the same percentage of atoms of hydrogen and oxygen as pure gold. The only other elements that can be present in significant quantities are nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and sometimes arsenic or antimony. These other elements are present in minerals or ores and cannot harm humans even if they are exposed to them for long periods of time.
Gold is a transition metal in chemistry. Transition metals are remarkable in that they may bind with other elements not only via their outermost shell of electrons (the negatively charged particles that spiral around the nucleus), but also through their outermost two shells. This gives them many different possible structures and properties. In fact, there are 20 naturally occurring transuranium elements. Of these, gold is the only one that does not decay into another element on exposure to air or water.
Gold has been used for thousands of years because it is beautiful and versatile. It can be used in jewelry, as money, and in science for analyzing samples of materials.
People have always been interested in gold because of its many uses and beauty. The ancient Chinese invented a method for extracting gold from its ores, which led to the development of modern mining practices. Gold was important to the Romans who used it for coins and armor. During the Industrial Revolution, it became useful as an industrial material for tools, switches, and containers. Today, it is still considered valuable because of its traditional use as currency and jewelry or as a store of value.
The composition of gold is about 99.9% oxygen with a small amount of other gases such as argon and nitrogen. Oxygen is the most common element found in nature and exists in all living things.