A person's health literacy can be influenced by a variety of circumstances, including poverty, education, race/ethnicity, age, and disability. Adults living in poverty have worse health literacy than adults living in affluent areas. This is likely due to the fact that people who are economically disadvantaged must make trade-offs between food, heating, and healthcare. They may forgo healthcare because it is expensive or difficult to obtain, which can lead to crisis situations when an emergency arises.
Other factors such as education level and racial/ethnic background also play a role in determining one's health literacy. For example, studies have shown that Hispanics/Latinos and African Americans tend to have lower health literacy than whites. This is likely due to the fact that many Hispanics/Latinos and African Americans come from cultures where reading and writing skills are not given as much importance. They may therefore miss important health information that is conveyed in written forms.
Additionally, younger people and those with less education are more likely to be unaware of how to improve their health literacy. These groups often rely on others to read medical materials to them, which can affect their ability to understand their conditions and take appropriate action.
Extensive evidence indicates that those with inadequate health literacy have worse health outcomes and greater medical expenses. In addition, low health literacy can lead individuals to make decisions based on inaccurate information from sources such as the media, which can have adverse effects on their health.
The importance of health literacy to nurses is evident from the many studies showing that patients' ability to understand health information and make informed choices are compromised by limited literacy skills. The National Institute for Health (NIH) states that "poorly written health materials often result in misunderstanding among patients and their families" and "inadequate patient education can increase risk of illness or injury." Nurses must be aware that individuals with low health literacy may need additional help understanding instructions, paperwork, and other material needed to participate in their care.
Studies show that individuals with low health literacy are more likely to: suffer from preventable hospitalizations; fail to follow-up with physicians after discharge; make inappropriate use of emergency departments; and deny having any problems when seeking treatment.
The effective communication of health information is essential to achieving high levels of patient safety and quality care. Patients who lack adequate health literacy skills may not understand instructions they are given during visits with providers.
Inadequate health literacy has been linked to poor long-term health care management and has been highlighted as an important social driver of health outcomes. However, little is known about how health literacy evolves over time or the procedures by which people become more health literate. This study aimed to explore changes in health literacy over time and identify factors that are associated with these changes.
We used data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). The ELSA is a population-based cohort study designed to examine changes in health and lifestyle factors over time among individuals aged 50 years and older. Health literacy was assessed using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) at baseline and again after three years. We used mixed effects models to assess changes in health literacy over time and logistic regression analyses to determine factors associated with these changes.
The sample included 3,164 participants (51% female; mean age = 62.5 years). Overall, we found evidence of improvement in functional health literacy over time. Participants who were male, younger, had higher educational attainment, were in paid employment, had better self-reported health, and lived in areas with higher income levels were more likely to have improved their functional health literacy over time.
Health literacy refers to how people receive, comprehend, and apply health information to improve their health. People with inadequate health literacy are more likely to have poor health outcomes and bad health practices. They may not be able to recognize symptoms that they should see a doctor for, or they may not understand why it is important to follow medical instructions.
People with low health literacy tend to make decisions about their health based on inaccurate information, which can lead to misdiagnosis or failure to seek necessary care. They may also fail to understand their medications or encounter other difficulties during hospital stays. These problems can increase the risk of illness or injury and result in poorer overall health.
The complexity of modern medicine makes it important for doctors to communicate effectively with their patients. However, many patients don't respond well to technical language used by physicians when trying to explain their conditions or treatments. For example, studies have shown that patients who need surgery often do not fully understand the risks involved. In addition, some patients may feel confused about what medications they should take following surgery. Health professionals must therefore find ways to communicate with patients at their level of understanding.
Poor nutrition and lack of exercise can lead to obesity, which can cause or exacerbate many other health problems including diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and cancer.
Low health literacy has been linked to poor health outcomes such as poorer health status [7-9], lack of knowledge about medical conditions and related care, lack of engagement with health care providers, decreased comprehension of medical information, mortality, and poorer use of health care services. It has also been associated with psychological effects such as anxiety and depression.
How does health literacy influence health outcomes? Health outcomes are largely determined by how well we respond to illness or injury. The more able we are to perform self-management behaviors, the better our chances of controlling symptoms and maintaining health. Individuals with lower health literacy may not be as capable of performing these behaviors because of difficulty understanding instructions, pain during testing, or lack of appropriate materials. They may also have difficulty finding resources online when needed and thus cannot obtain the information they need.
What are some effective strategies for addressing low health literacy? Effective strategies to address low health literacy include providing education about health topics including disease management, counseling patients on how to read hospital materials, and using simple language in written materials. Providing training programs for staff members that focus on clear communication techniques will also help reduce patient confusion resulting in better health outcomes.
Is there a link between health literacy and access to healthcare? Yes. Low health literacy is often accompanied by limited access to healthcare due to cost, time constraints, and lack of availability at certain locations (such as hospitals).